University of Washington Seattle Psychological Variables Amid Covid 19 Pandemic Paper You will study the relationship between two variables in relation to

University of Washington Seattle Psychological Variables Amid Covid 19 Pandemic Paper You will study the relationship between two variables in relation to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. For now, I want you to focus on the two primary variables you have chosen. Why are these variables important? How do you anticipate these psychological variables might relate to or be influenced by social isolation or quarantine during our current times? What other individual differences might influence these variables? For example, will there be gender differences? Are there other variables that might influence the two you have chosen? Think about these psychological variables, their relationship to one another, and how they might be influenced by, or interact with issues related to COVID-19. The Two variables that i chose are Extraversion, Need to BelongLeary, Kelly, Cottrell, & Schreindorfer, 2013. I will upload a file to give an example of the style format. I will be plugging in a results file to give you the statistics for the experiment so you can implement the numbers. General Guidelines for Writing an APA-Style Paper (6th Edition)
The basic sections of the paper are:
1. Title Page
2. Abstract
3. Introduction
4. Method
5. Results (or Results and Discussion)
6. Discussion
[For studies with multiple experiments, repeat 4-6 as needed, then tie it all together with a General Discussion.]
7. References
8. Figures and Tables, etc.
The order in which you would typically write the sections is not the order in which they appear in the paper.
Instead, you would typically write the Method section(s) first, then the Results section(s), then the Intro, then
the Discussion(s)/General Discussion, and then the Abstract. All pages written in 12 point Times New Roman
font and are double-spaced with 1” margins all around. The Running Head and page number go in the header
of every page.
1. Title Page
The title of your paper should clearly identify the topic of the paper and should not be longer than 12
words. It should not be poetic or mystical. The title page also includes a running head, the author(s) name(s),
and the author(s) affiliation (e.g., University of Washington). The running head should briefly summarize the
title using key words and be no more than 50 characters in length. If including an author note (e.g.,
acknowledgments, etc.), this would also go on the title page.
2. Abstract
This section should be clear and concise. It should not exceed 150 words. You should think of it as a
very brief synopsis that highlights the essential parts of the other sections of the paper. In other words, you
should write about 2 sentences of introduction (research question/purpose), 2 sentences of method, 2 sentences
of results (where you state specifically what you found), and 2 sentences of discussion (where you interpret
what you found).
I would argue that this is the hardest section to write and arguably the most important. After all, this is
what gets printed in PsycINFO and Psych Abstracts. If people read your abstract and can’t figure out what you
did or what you found, they are unlikely to read your paper. It’s worth any extra effort to make this section as
clear as possible.
3. Introduction
In this section you establish the importance of the research you are reporting. One typically reviews the
relevant literature to show the reader what other researchers in the area have found. This review serves two
functions. First, it shows that the area is sufficiently interesting that several researchers have worked in the
area. Second, it shows that the area of research is incomplete (e.g., there are controversies or ambiguities that
remain even after all the research).
The Introduction of the paper starts off general and gets more specific. So, you would typically begin
with an introduction to your topic to show that the research area is interesting. Next you would summarize the
relevant background literature by stating the main findings from previous studies and then summarizing any
existing or competing theories, indicating what areas of ambiguity remain. For instance, maybe no one has
looked at the effect with children (or rats, or schizophrenics, etc., and you can see why someone should) or
Smith reports one interpretation and Jones reports a second interpretation.
Finally, toward the end of the Intro you would tell the reader (in general terms) how your research will
serve to clarify any controversies/ambiguities. This “purpose paragraph” is quite important. It’s the vehicle
whereby you will tell the reader the way in which your research will contribute to the discipline. What piece of
the puzzle are you trying to answer? What gap in the previous literature are you filling? What controversies are
you trying to resolve? Within this purpose paragraph, you should briefly explain your method, outlining your
variables and the task. Then, you should state your hypotheses/predictions. These should be stated in two ways
(although you don’t necessarily need two sentences to do this). You should state your hypotheses in terms of
the conceptual variables as well as in terms of the measured variables. In short, the Introduction should answer
these four questions: What do we know? What don’t we know? How will your research tell us something
new? What do you expect will happen?
The Introduction would typically be fairly long. In the case of most journal articles, one would expect
5-10 pages in Microsoft Word (FYI: 4 pages of Word Document = 1 page of journal article). My expectations
for your reports are a bit different. For your manuscript, I expect that your Introduction will be 3-5 pages. I
would like to see you review the many articles that you’ve used to develop your experiment and also because
I’m unlikely to have a lot of background knowledge in the specific area within which you are proposing your
research.
4. Method
For the Method section, you are trying to represent all the ingredients essential to the experiment so that
an interested researcher would be able to replicate the experiment. I think that a good hint for determining if
your Method is clear is to have a friend or classmate read the section and then tell you what happens in the
experiment. If he or she can’t give you a specific outline of your experiment, then you need to work more on
your Method section.
You need to become aware of what constitutes an essential ingredient. If you used a Sony camcorder
(Model THDGF) and it’s essential for replication that the exact same camcorder be used, then be sure to report
all the crucial details. However, if any old video recorder would work equally well, then you can simply say
that stimuli were recorded with a camcorder. This line that distinguishes what gets included in a method section
and what is common sense (e.g., the participants used a pencil to fill out the questionnaire) becomes more and
more clear as you read more journal articles. So, you should read more journal articles.
The Method section typically includes subsections such as Participants, Materials and Apparatus (which
includes a description of the experimental design), and Procedure. You should use any subsection(s) that would
make your methodology clearer.
Participants subsection – In this section you should include the number of participants that were in the
study as well as the circumstances of their participation. That is, did they complete the study as part of a course
requirement, for extra credit in their TPSYCH 101 class, or voluntarily? Did they receive any monetary
compensation for their time? This section should also include any relevant demographic characteristics of your
participants. How many males vs. females were in your study? Were all of your participants pre-verbal
infants? Were they all left-handed? Did they have normal vision? Did you remove particular people from
analysis?
Materials and Measures subsection – In this section, you should thoroughly describe any stimuli that
you use. Describe in as much detail as you can the items (the words, pictures, sounds, etc.) that were in the
experiment. Also describe the equipment that was used to present the stimuli (computers, headphones, monitor,
website, etc.). If your study involved an experimental manipulation, you should outline the experimental
design. Indicate how many trials there were in each level of the independent variable. Indicate whether the
experiment was a within-subjects design, a between-subjects design, or a mixed design. If you used a betweensubjects manipulation, indicate how participants were assigned to the experimental conditions. If you used
blocking or counterbalancing, elaborate on how you did that.
Procedure subsection – This is a step-by-step description of the experimental session from a
participant’s point of view. It should include the administration of the informed consent and debriefing forms.
It should include how much time each session took, where participants were tested, how questionnaires were
administered, and any instructions that were given. If there were any breaks given, they should also be
described.
5. Results
Your crucial results are reported in this section and should follow the format shown in the APA style
manual. You should specify your alpha level and state the types of analyses that were conducted. If any data
was eliminated (e.g., outliers), you should describe these procedures. Then, you should summarize the data
patterns by reporting the appropriate descriptive statistics, highlighting any relevant differences between
conditions when they occur. Then, you should present any inferential statistics (including the value of the test
statistic, the degrees of freedom, the p-value, and the effect size). You should report the exact p-value unless
the p-value was less than .001. Then, you’d report p < .001. The results are reported with little or no interpretation. However, you should write your Results section with the Discussion section in mind. Organize the description of the data in a way that will make it easy to later discuss/interpret your conclusions. Be sure to note how to include figures or tables, which are often found in this section. They are actually appended to the end of your paper, but you indicate where you want them to be inserted into your paper in the body of the paper itself. Thus, if you are going to use a figure or table, you must mention it in the text of your results section (see Figure 1). 6. Discussion While the Introduction of the paper starts off general and gets more specific, the Discussion starts off specific and gets more general. In this section you first summarize your findings across statistical analyses. That is, what as a whole are your statistics telling you? Then, interpret your results in light of the questions raised in the Introduction. Here, you provide the reader with an integrative overview of the results of your experiment. Do not simply reiterate the results – instead, tell a story. Focus on interpretation: Tell the reader what you think it all means. Do your results support the predictions/hypotheses stated in the Introduction? Direct the reader to the importance of the results, especially in the context of prior research (“...our findings are inconsistent with a theory of ____ as proposed by Jones...”). You should also acknowledge any possible limitations of the study. Finally, you might suggest to the reader what specific questions remain unanswered even with your truly important and impressive contribution. Everyone expects that more research is necessary, so simply mouthing that platitude isn’t going to get anyone excited — be specific about what you think needs to be done next and why. The final paragraph of your discussion should be a paragraph that summarizes the conclusions that you have drawn, and should end with a take-home message about your contribution. 7. References Consult your APA manual for examples of how to create a references page. Be sure to note details such as the abbreviation of names, capitalization, indentation, italicizing, and punctuation. If you use an article that contains a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), you should also include that, too. Here are some examples of journal articles: Gerrig, R. J., & McKoon, G. (1998). The readiness is all: The functionality of memory-based text processing. Discourse Processes, 26(2-3), 67-86. doi: 10.1080/01638539809545039 Merikle, P. M. (1974). Selective backward masking with an unpredictable mask. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103(3), 589–591. doi: 10.1037/h0037175 Here is an example of a book chapter: Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 447-461). New York: Guilford Press. In the examples above, pay special attention to the abbreviation of names, capitalization, indentation, italicizing, and punctuation. When citing references within the manuscript, it is best to cite earlier rather than later. That is, if your Intro includes an entire paragraph about Anderson’s 2008 experiment, you should cite him (and the date) early in the paragraph rather than at the end of it. DO NOT USE QUOTATIONS! Instead, you should put the information into your own words (paraphrase) and then cite the source. Finally, when in doubt, cite. Citations to resources would be as follows: Smith (2009) — single author within body of text (Smith, 2009) — single author reference within parentheses Smith and Jones (2009) — two authors within body of text, use this form throughout text (Smith & Jones, 2009) — two authors within parentheses, use this form throughout text Smith, Jones, and Hall (2009) — three authors within body of text, first reference Smith et al. (2009) — three authors within body of text, subsequent references (Smith, Jones, & Hall, 2009) — three authors within parentheses, first reference (Smith et al., 2009) — three authors within parentheses, subsequent references Use this form for 3 to 6 authors; for references with more than 6 authors, go straight to the “et al.” form (Howard, 1984; Smith, 2009) – citing two references, each with a single author (note the alphabetical order) (Howard, 1984, as cited in Smith, 2009) – citing a reference (Howard) that was made by another (Smith) 8. Figures and Tables Figures and tables take on a number of different forms, depending on the design of the research study and the type of data that was collected. Figures and tables are not intended to be self-explanatory, but are intended to supplement the text. You would not use a figure or a table to report only a small number of means (i.e., less than 4), but simply write them into your text. You would also not include an ANOVA source table as a figure. Experimental results are often reported in bar graphs comparing levels of IVs. As stated earlier, both figures and tables need to be referred to within the body of the text (usually in the Results section). The figures and tables themselves, though, are placed on separate pages at the end of the manuscript (after the references section). Figure titles and Table titles are put on the same page that the figure or table is on. Other APA Writing Details • • • • • • • • • • When talking about the people in your study, use “participants” and not “subjects” “After each participant completed the questionnaire, they took their…” is INCORRECT. However, “After participants completed the questionnaire, they took their…” is correct. • Remember that “they,” “them,” and “their” are all plural. • Use “he or she” rather than “s/he” or “he/she” or “zie”. Use “since” to mean “after that”. Use “because” for cause and effect. (E.g., Because “since” refers to passage of time you should not use it to begin this sentence.) “Affect” is a verb; “effect” is a noun. “It’s” means “it is”; for the possessive, use “its” Data is plural. Datum is singular (and is a word that is never used). (E.g., “These data suggest…”) Criteria is plural. Criterion is singular. Phenomena is plural. Phenomenon is singular. “None” and “no one” are singular. Active voice is preferred to passive voice. (E.g., “We predict” > “It is predicted”) A good way to check
for passive voice is to insert the phrase “by zombies” after a verb clause. If the phrase makes sense, you
are using passive voice (and therefore deserve to be eaten by zombies).
More Questions?
For a good overview of the process of writing an APA-style paper, refer to Bem’s piece “Writing the Empirical
Journal Article”. For answers to specific questions on formatting issues, consult your APA manual (6th edition)
or the Purdue Owl online.
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=gen
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
Frequencies
Statistics
What is your gender?
N
Valid
Missing
53
0
What is your gender?
Valid
Female
Male
Total
Frequency
33
20
53
Percent
62.3
37.7
100.0
Valid Percent
62.3
37.7
100.0
Cumulative
Percent
62.3
100.0
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=age
/STATISTICS=STDDEV MINIMUM MAXIMUM MEAN MEDIAN MODE
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
Frequencies
Statistics
What is your age? (if you’d
prefer not to answer, please
enter NA)
N
Valid
52
Missing
1
Mean
19.9231
Median
Mode
Std. Deviation
Minimum
Maximum
19.0000
19.00
2.16791
18.00
31.00
What is your age? (if you’d prefer not to answer, please
enter NA)
Valid
Missing
Total
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
31.00
Total
System
Frequency
11
19
5
10
3
2
1
1
52
1
53
Percent
20.8
35.8
9.4
18.9
5.7
3.8
1.9
1.9
98.1
1.9
100.0
CORRELATIONS
/VARIABLES=DTA_Total COV_Total
/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG
/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Correlations
Valid Percent
21.2
36.5
9.6
19.2
5.8
3.8
1.9
1.9
100.0
Cumulative
Percent
21.2
57.7
67.3
86.5
92.3
96.2
98.1
100.0
Descriptive Statistics
DTA_Total
COV_Total
Mean
.5769
.7692
Std. Deviation
.80064
.73071
N
52
52
Correlations
DTA_Total
DTA_Total
COV_Total
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
1
52
-.103
.467
52
COV_Total
-.103
.467
52
1
52
CORRELATIONS
/VARIABLES=DTA_Total COV_Total NTB_Total NFC_Total Need_Failure Need_Sat Ext_Total
/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG
/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Correlations
Descriptive Statistics
DTA_Total
COV_Total
NTB_Total
NFC_Total
Need_Failure
Need_Sat
Ext_Total
Mean
.5769
.7692
3.2226
3.9245
4.2107
4.5346
3.1108
Std. Deviation
.80064
.73071
.65299
.80851
1.67120
1.31411
.77353
N
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
Correlations
DTA_Total
DTA_Total
Pearson Correlation
COV_Total
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
COV_Total
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
NTB_Total
-.103
.113
.229
-.044
.108
.467
.426
.103
.755
.447
52
52
52
52
52
.077
-.176
*
-.275
-.005
.585
.211
.048
.972
1
.467
52
52
52
Pearson Correlation
.113
.077
1
.228
.044
-.243
Sig. (2-tailed)
.426
.585
.101
.754
.080
52
52
53
53
53
53
Pearson Correlation
.229
-.176
.228
1
.238
.188
Sig. (2-tailed)
.103
.211
.101
.086
.177
52
52
53
53
53
53
-.044
-.275
*
.044
.238
1
.073
.755
.048
.754
.086
52
52
53
53
53
53
Pearson Correlation
.108
-.005
-.243
.188
.073
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.447
.972
.080
.177
.602
52
52
53
53
53
53
Pearson Correlation
.060
.185
-.059
-.066
-.272*
.330*
Sig. (2-tailed)
.672
.189
.676
.641
.049
.016
52
52
53
53
53
53
Pearson Correlation
N
N
Ext_Total
Need_Sat
52
Sig. (2-tailed)
Need_Sat
Need_Failure
52
N
Need_Failure
-.103
NFC_Total
52
N
NFC_Total
52
NTB_Total
N
.602
RECODE gen (1=0) (2=1) INTO gen_2.
EXECUTE.
T-TEST GROUPS=gen_2(0 1)
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES=NTB_Total
/CRITERIA=CI(.95).
T-Test
Group Statistics
NTB_Total
gen_2
female
male
N
33
20
Mean
Std. Deviation
3.3848
.66714
2.9550
.54432
Std. Error
Mean
.11613
.12171
Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for
Equality of
Variances
NTB_
Total
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
F
.099
T-TEST GROUPS=gen_2(0 1)
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
Sig.
.754
t-test for Equality of Means
Sig.
(2Mean
taile Differen
t
df
d)
ce
2.430
51 .019 .42985
2.555 46.473
.014
.42985
/VARIABLES=NTB_Total NFC_Total DTA_Total COV_Total Need_Failure Need_Sat Ext_Total
/CRITERIA=CI(.95).
T-Test
Group Statistics
NTB_Total
NFC_Total
DTA_Total
COV_Total
Need_Failure
Need_Sat
Ext_Total
gen_2
female
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
N
33
20
33
20
33
19
33
19
33
20
33
20
33
20
Mean
Std. Deviation
3.3848
.66714
2.9550
.54432
4.0485
.87135
3.7200
.66301
.4848
.71244
.7368
.93346
.8182
.68258
.6842
.82007
4.3788
1.60039
3.9333
1.78885
4.1465
1.29888
5.1750
1.09153
3.0606
.76682
3.1938
.79728
Std. Error
Mean
.11613
.12171
.15168
.14825
.12402
.21415
.11882
.18814
.27859
.40000
.22611
.24407
.13349
.17828
Independent Samples Test
Levene’s Test for
Equality of
Variances
NTB_To Equal
tal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
NFC_To Equal
tal
var…
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