University of The Cumberlands Block Chain Technology and ITIL Questions 1. Choose two aspects of enterprise blockchain governance presented in chapter 10 a

University of The Cumberlands Block Chain Technology and ITIL Questions 1. Choose two aspects of enterprise blockchain governance presented in chapter 10 and describe how you think each one could help govern a blockchain environment (and how it differs from a traditional application environment.) Then think of three questions you’d like to ask other students and add these to the end of your thread. The questions should be taken from material you read in Chapter 10.

2. Choose a security threat from Chapter 11. Then describe the impact of the chosen threat if it would be realized in a blockchain environment, and what you can do to mitigate the threat. Then think of three questions you’d like to ask other students and add these to the end of your thread. The questions should be taken from Chapter 11.

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Note: No Plagiarism Hands-On Blockchain with Hyperledger
Building decentralized applications with Hyperledger Fabric and Composer
Nitin Gaur
Luc Desrosiers
Venkatraman Ramakrishna
Petr Novotny
Dr. Salman A. Baset
Anthony O’Dowd
Hands-On Blockchain with
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In my role as the chair of the Hyperledger Technical Steering Committee,
I’ve come to realize the great divide between the enormous hype
surrounding blockchain and the depth of understanding of how blockchain
technology works, where the technology is on the maturity curve, and how
it might be leveraged in the context of the enterprise.
Most of the hype relates to the cryptocurrency aspects of public,
permission-less blockchain—ICOs as a substitute for more traditional IPOs,
and the potential for disrupting traditional systems of banking, insurance,
securities, and so on. It is the potential for disruption and the asymmetric
profits that disruption might yield that have driven many to explore how
blockchain might be used to one company’s advantage over the rest of a
given domain. However, what many are discovering is that blockchain is a
team sport, and for blockchain to be successful in an enterprise, it demands
a degree of industry collaboration not seen before.
The authors of this book take you beyond the hype. They lay a solid
foundation for understanding the state of the technology landscape—
including active and incubating projects under development at Hyperledger.
They provide you with a framework for choosing the right technology
platform, designing your solution, and integration with existing systems.
And they explain the various governance models for establishing and
operating a blockchain business network.
If you are an enterprise architect or developer tasked with developing a
blockchain solution for your enterprise or industry, this book is a must-read.
Christopher Ferris
IBM Distinguished Engineer, CTO Open Technology
IBM Digital Business Group, Open Technologies
About the authors
Nitin Gaur, as the director of IBM’s Blockchain Labs, is responsible for
instituting a body of knowledge and organizational understanding around
blockchain technology and industry-specific applications. Tenacious and
customer focused, he is known for his ability to analyze opportunities and
create technologies that align with operational needs, catapult profitability,
and dramatically improve customer experience. He is also an IBM
Distinguished Engineer.
Luc Desrosiers is an IBM-certified IT architect with 20+ years of
experience. Throughout his career, he has taken on different roles:
developer, consultant, and pre-sales architect. He recently moved from
Canada to the UK to work in a great lab: IBM Hursley. This is where he had
the opportunity to join the IBM Blockchain team. He is now working with
clients across multiple industries to help them explore how blockchain
technologies can enable transformative uses and solutions.
Venkatraman Ramakrishna is an IBM researcher with 10 years of
experience. Following a BTech from IIT Kharagpur and PhD from UCLA,
he worked in the Bing infrastructure team in Microsoft, building reliable
application deployment software. At IBM Research, he worked in mobile
computing and security before joining the Blockchain team. He has
developed applications for trade and regulation, and is now working on
improving the performance and privacy-preserving characteristics of the
Hyperledger platform.
Petr Novotny is a research scientist at IBM Research, with 15+ years of
experience in engineering and research of software systems. He received an
MSc from University College London and PhD from Imperial College
London, where he was also a post-doctoral research associate. He was a
visiting scientist at the U.S. Army Research Lab. At IBM, he works on
innovations of blockchain technologies and leads the development of
blockchain solutions and analytical tools.
Dr. Salman A. Baset is the CTO of security in IBM Blockchain Solutions.
He oversees the security and compliance of blockchain solutions being built
by IBM in collaboration with partners such as Walmart and Maersk, and
interfaces with clients on blockchain solutions and their security. He drives
the implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation for
blockchain-based solutions. He has also built the identity management
system, used by Fortune 500 companies involved in global trade
digitization, and IBM Food Trust blockchain solutions.
Anthony O’Dowd works in IBM’s Blockchain team. He is based in Europe
as part of a worldwide team that helps users build solutions that benefit
from blockchain tech. Anthony has a background in middle and back office
systems, and has led the development of key IBM middleware in enterprise
messaging and integration. He likes to work in different industries to
understand how they can exploit middleware to build more efficient,
integrated business systems.
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Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright and Credits
Hands-On Blockchain with Hyperledger
Packt Upsell
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About the authors
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Who this book is for
What this book covers
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1. Blockchain
– Enterprise and Industry Perspective
Defining the terms – what is a blockchain?
Four core building blocks of blockchain framworks
Additional capabilities to consider
Fundamentals of the secure transaction processing protocol
Where blockchain technology has been and where it’s going
The great divide
An economic model for blockchain delivery
Learning as we go
The promise of trust and accountability
Industries putting blockchain technology to work
Blockchain in the enterprise
What applications are a good fit?
How does the enterprise view blockchain?
Litmus testing to justify the application of blockchain technology
Integrating a blockchain infrastructure for the whole enterprise
Enterprise design principles
Business drivers and evolution
Ensuring sustainability
The principles that drive blockchain adoption
Business considerations for choosing a blockchain framework
Technology considerations for choosing a blockchain framework
Identity management
Enterprise security
Development tooling
Crypto-economic models
Decentralization with systemic governance
Enterprise support
Use case-driven pluggability choices
Shared ledger technology
Crypto algorithms and encryption technology
Use case-driven pluggable choices
Enterprise integration and designing for extensibility
Other considerations
Consensus, ACID property, and CAP
Attestation – SSCs are signed and encrypted
Use of HSMs
2. Exploring
Hyperledger Fabric
Building on the foundations of open computing
Fundamentals of the Hyperledger project
The Linux Foundation 
Open source and open standards
Hyperledger frameworks, tools, and building blocks
Hyperledger frameworks
Hyperledger tools
The building blocks of blockchain solutions
Hyperledger Fabric component design
Principles of Hyperledger design
CAP Theorem
Hyperledger Fabric reference architecture
Hyperledger Fabric runtime architecture
Strengths and advantages of componentized design
Hyperledger Fabric – the journey of a sample transaction
Hyperledger Fabric explored
Components in a blockchain network
Developer interaction
Understanding governance in business networks powered by blockchain
Governance structure and landscape
Information technology governance
Blockchain network governance
Business network governance
3. Setting
the Stage with a Business Scenario
Trading and letter of credit
The importance of trust in facilitating trade
The letter of credit process today
Business scenario and use case
Real-world processes
Simplified and modified processes
Terms used in trade finance and logistics
Shared process workflow
Shared assets and data
Participants’ roles and capabilities
Benefits of blockchain applications over current real-world processe
Setting up the development environment
Designing a network
Installing prerequisites
Forking and cloning the trade-finance-logistics repository
Creating and running a network configuration 
Preparing the network
Generating network cryptographic material
Generating channel artifacts
Generating the configuration in one operation
Composing a sample trade network
Network components’ configuration files
Launching a sample trade network
4. Designing
a Data and Transaction Model with Golang
Starting the chaincode development
Compiling and running chaincode
Installing and instantiating chaincode
Invoking chaincode
Creating a chaincode
The chaincode interface
Setting up the chaincode file
The Invoke method
Access control
Registering a user
Enrolling a user
Retrieving user identities and attributes in chaincode
Implementing chaincode functions
Defining chaincode assets
Coding chaincode functions
Creating an asset
Reading and modifying an asset
Main function
Testing chaincode
SHIM mocking
Testing the Init method
Testing the Invoke method
Running tests
Chaincode design topics
Composite keys
Range queries
State queries and CouchDB
ReadSet and WriteSet
Multiversion concurrency control
Logging output
Logging API
SHIM logging levels
Stdout and stderr
Additional SHIM API functions
5. Exposing
Network Assets and Transactions
Building a complete application
The nature of a Hyperledger Fabric application
Application and transaction stages
Application model and architecture
Building the application
Middleware – wrapping and driving the chaincode
Installation of tools and dependencies
Prerequisites for creating and running the middleware
Installation of dependencies
Creating and running the middleware
Network configuration
Endorsement policy
User records
Client registration and enrollment
Creating a channel
Joining a channel
Installation of chaincode
Instantiation of chaincode
Invoking the chaincode
Querying the chaincode
Completing the loop – subscribing to blockcha
in events
Putting it all together
User application – exporting the service and API
User and session management
Designing an API
Creating and launching a service
User and session management
Network administration
Exercising the application
User/client interaction modes
Testing the Middleware and Application
Integration with existing systems and processes
Design considerations
Process alignment
Message affinity
Service discovery
Identity mapping
Integration design pattern
Enterprise system integration
Integrating with an existing system of record
Integrating with an operational data store
Microservice and event-driven architecture
Considering reliability, availability, and serviceability
6. Business
A busy world of purposeful activity
Why a language for business networks?
Defining business networks
A deeper idea
Introducing participants
Types of participant
Individual participants
Organizational participants
System or device participants
Participants are agents
Participants and identity
Introducing assets
Assets flow between participants
Tangible and intangible assets
The structure of assets
Ownership is a special relationship
Asset life cycles
Describing asset’s life cycles in detail with transactions
Introducing transactions
Change as a fundamental concept
Transaction definition and instance
Implicit and explicit transactions
The importance of contracts
Smart contracts for multi-party transaction processing
Digital transaction processing
Initiating transactions
Transaction history
Transaction streams
Separating transactions into different business networks
Transaction history and asset states
A business network as a history of transactions
Regulators and business networks
Discussing events from the perspective of designing a business network us
ing Composer
A universal concept
Messages carry event notifications
An example to illustrate event structure
Events and transactions
External versus explicit events
Events cause participants to act
Loosely coupled design
The utility of events
Implementing a business network
The importance of de-materialization
Blockchain benefits for B2B and EDI
Participants that interact with the blockchain
Accessing the business network with APIs
A 3-tier systems architecture
Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Composer
7. A
Business Network Example
The letter of credit sample
Installing the sample
Running the sample
Step 1 – preparing to request a letter of cre
Step 2 – requesting a letter of credit
Step 3 – importing bank approval
Step 4 – exporting bank approval
Step 5 – letter received by exporter
Step 6 – shipment
Step 7 – goods received
Step 8 – payment
Step 9 – closing the letter
Step 10 – Bob receives payment
Recapping the process
Analyzing the letter of credit process
The Playground
Viewing the business network
A description of the business network
The participant descriptions
The asset descriptions
The transaction descriptions
The event descriptions
A model of the business network
Asset definitions
Participant definitions
Concept definitions
Transaction definitions
Event definitions
Examining the live network
Examining a letter of credit instance
Examining participant instances
Examining transaction instances
Submitting a new transaction to the network
Understanding how transactions are implemented
Creating business network APIs
SWAGGER API definitions
Querying the network using SWAGGER
Testing the network from the command line
Creating a new letter using SWAGGER
Network cards and wallets
Access-control lists
8. Agility
in a Blockchain Network
Defining the promotion process
Smart contract considerations
Integration layer considerations
Promotion process overview
Configuring a continuous integration pipeline
Customizing the pipeline process
Local build
Configuring Travis CI
Customizing the pipeline using .travis.yml
Publishing our smart contract package
Configuring your Git repository
Setting the code owners of our smart contract
Sample content of the CODEOWNERS
Protecting the master branch
Configuring Git for commit signing and validation
Configuring GPG on your local workstation
Testing the end-to-end process
Creating a new transaction
Pushing a commit to the master branch directly
Submitting a pull request with an unsigned commit
Adding test cases
Submitting a pull request with a signed commit
Adding the mergeAssets unit test
Releasing the new version
Updating the network
Notifying the consortium
Upgrading the business network
Downloading a new version
Updating the business network
9. Life
in a Blockchain Network
Modifying or upgrading a Hyperledger Fabric application
Fabric blockchain and application life cycle
Channel configuration updates
Prerequisites for adding a new organization to the network
Generating network cryptographic material
Generating channel artifacts
Generating the configuration and network components in one ope
Launching the network components for the new organization
Updating the channel configuration
Adding the new organization to the network
Smart contract and policy updates
Modification in chaincode logic
Dependency upgrades in chaincode
Ledger resetting
Endorsement policy update
Upgrading chaincode and endorsement policy on the trade channe
Platform upgrades
System monitoring and performance
Measurement and analytics
What should we measure or understand in a Fabric application
Blockchain applications vis-à-vis traditional transaction
processing applications
Metrics for performance analysis
Measurement and data collection in a Fabric application
Collecting health and capacity information
Profiling containers and applications
Measuring application performance
Fabric engineering guidelines for performance
Platform performance characteristics
System bottlenecks
Configuration and tuning
Ledger data availability and caching
Redundant committing peer
Data caching
Fabric performance measurement and benchmarking
10. Governance,
Necessary Evil of Regulated Industries
Decentralization and governance
Exploring the business models
Blockchain benefits
Supply chain management
Finance – letter of credit
From benefits to profits
Network business model
Founder-led network
Consortium-based network
Community-based network
Hybrid models
Joint venture
New corporation
Role of governance in a business network
Business domains and processes
Membership life cycle
Funding and fees
Service life cycle
Governance structure
Centralized governance
Strategic governance
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