University of Mobile CH2 Impact of Single Parenting on Childs Education Paper I’m currently working on a thesis. I need more references to add to my litera

University of Mobile CH2 Impact of Single Parenting on Childs Education Paper I’m currently working on a thesis. I need more references to add to my literature review. I will attach what I currently have and you will be able to add to it. The title of my thesis is THE
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This chapter focuses on previous studies in the form of research articles and books about
the impact of single parenting on academic performance as well as the general education of a
child. Many of the existing studies about this topic have various views and conclusions regarding
factors that affect the academic performance of children. Several of them use Vygotsky’s (1978)
cognitive development theory that outlines the critical role parents and teachers play on the
academic performance of children. The review of literature in this regard also resonates with
Vygotsky’s theory as well as relevant studies on the influence of parents on the academic
performance of children. It is in this regard that the role of a single parent will manifest in the
model of behaviors and attitudes towards education among the children.
Theoretical Literature Review
Based on Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory, Chaer (2019) assert that children
from single-parent families are at greater risk than their counterparts in dual-parent families, on
matters of academic performance. They are likely to perform poorly even if the two classes have
limited disparity in their academic abilities.
According to Amofa (2013), children from single-parent families are twice likely to drop
out of high school than the children from dual-parent families. The same study indicates that
children from single-parent families are more vulnerable to behaviors that may impede their
abilities to do well in school. Some of those behaviors include drug abuse and very low spirit and
morale to pursue academic excellence.
Salami & Alawode (2010) indicate that the primary source of the entire family support in
terms of finances and care is centered on one parent. Therefore, it is often hard for such parents
to have quality time to help their children with homework and maintain consistent discipline.
There is also a chance that parental control will be limited along with other necessary factors
whose ultimate result is the poor performance among the children. The implication of this study
then is that the students’ performance in school is mediated by their upbringing, which perhaps is
influenced by their family background.
According to Sylvestre & Paez (2015), a secure attachment between a parent and child
makes parenting easier and supports parent/child intimacy, which enhances the child’s sense of
worth. When there is limited interaction between the parent and the child, attachment issues and
compromises may develop that negatively affect parenting. Consequently, an overwhelming
level of distress on single parents may make it hard for them to dispatch their responsibilities to
the latter. A tight relationship between a single parent and a child may foster the socio-emotional
development of that child and overlook behavioral concerns. According to Sigmund Freud, the
human psyche is that of pleasure-seeking by nature. In this regard, Single-parents who are
experiencing the pain of separation are likely to resort to behaviors that may be risky, yet
provides them with the gratification they may need to deal with the stressors that they encounter.
Based on Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning, Goddard (2018) indicates that human beings
tend to portray the recurrence of behaviors to yield favorable outcomes. For this reason, many
single parents struggle with self-reliance because their dependency on external supports is
According to Erick Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development, Côté (2019) argues
that the consistent presence and support of the caregiver will ensure that children can attain
developmental milestones that support their self-awareness, independence and self-trust. Such
needs are common among all children irrespective of their parental status. In most cases, a single
parent may not be in a good position to provide consistent support to children because of several
commitments related to family needs. As a result, the children may fail to acquire what it takes to
gain attitudes of trust, independence, self-awareness, and the desire to do well academically.
Even though the result of this trend may be adverse to the academic life of the children in
question, not all is lost. From the Resilience Theory, Greene (2017) suggests that some inborn
mechanisms enable individuals to cope and hence overcome the adversities in their lives. Single
parents can effectively employ the coping skills and strategies to overcome the challenges they
encounter while raising their children. Therefore, it is not always obvious that children from
single-parent families will always fail in class. Some of them are even high performers because
of the strong support and cohesion in the family. The parent in this regard, maybe having a
steady source of income as well as strong coping strategies.
Empirical Literature Review
Single Parenting
The directness of single parenting is evident in the child’s thinking and mindset. Several
psychologists, including Cliette & Livingston (2017), have validated this conclusion. Consistent
tests and observations from Cliette & Livingston (2017) suggest that single parenting is one of
the reasons as to why some children are rebellious and more aggressive in school. Such
behaviors will end up being transferred on their educational needs to allow for their survival in
the society. It is believed that the behavioral outcomes in school result from anger and limitations
the child may have experienced while growing up. Such experiences usually make the child feel
abnormal and excluded from the rest. Concisely, a child raised by a single parent faces several
limitations that influence their academic performance.
A similar study was conducted by Hashmi (2017), involving a comparison of children
from single-parent families and those from two parents’ families. The objective was to
investigate the behavioral tendencies in Turkey. From the study, it was found that children living
with single parents are less assertive and more aggressive in schools. Their submission to the
school requirements is also very low, and as a result, their academics will be poorer compared to
those hailing from two parents’ families. In this regard, the study suggested that families,
teachers, and school administrators should be aware of the behavioral tendencies common
among children from single-parent families. Such a realization is necessary to inform the kind of
interventions needed to improve the performance of such children.
Where both parents are involved, children will always enjoy the necessary care and
socialization emanating from parents who complement one another in the upbringing role
(Nonoyama?Tarumi, 2017). Children brought under such conditions stand a higher chance to
achieve self-actualization, which is part of the recipe for the academic performance among
children. Those children from single parents, unlike the former, will suffer deprivation and denial
of some opportunities and their perceived rights. Lack of familial socialization and intimacy with
both parents will affect the way the children will socialize in school. It is also noted that when
the mother is absent, and the father is not in a good position to act in the mother’s capacity,
children will face myriads of challenges regarding their schooling. Those children living with
both the father and the mother will receive the best care and best of form socialization that will
enhance their self-actualization and, consequently, good performance in school (Nonoyama?
Tarumi, 2017). On the other as well, a family whose father is absent will have children facing
challenges in their schooling. If the mother is not well privileged, children can easily end up
withdrawing from their schooling. In general, educational guidance for children is normally
dependent on the collective duty of both parents. Therefore, when either of the parents is absent,
other processes may not be affected so much, but education will be deteriorated deeply. This is
due to the problem of double responsibility that involves time attentions, and finances of which
course may not be sufficient.
According to Royal et al. (2017), the stress involved in looking for basic needs, including
food, shelter, and clothing for the family, on the part of a single parent puts them at risk of losing
a closer connection with their children. The effect also comprises the ability of the parent to
monitor life walks of the children, including that of their education. From Bowl’s attachment
theory, Zhu & Wang (2018) detachment (insecure attachment), which is common among single
parents and their children, may lead to ineffective parenting strategies due to the amount of stress
laid on parents. The outcome of this is the inability of children to thrive well in school.
Consequently, it is often found that the academic performance of such children remains at bay.
Besides their inability to do well in school, these children are not likely to fully develop their
talents, interests, and abilities.
Challenges Facing Single Parents
While parenting, in general, is not easy, single parents are twice tougher considering the
kind and the number of responsibilities. Newer challenges face single parents daily, appearing in
a combination of several types. Whichever the situation, it is hard to deny the idea that single
parenting is full of setbacks. The impact of raising children in a single-parent family has
escalated beyond economics into increasing the risk of children dropping their school learning
and becoming parents at teenage. Among many challenges are financial, nature of the
occupation, and time management.
Financial Challenges
The loss of income and the initial absence of financial resources is one of the greatest
challenges facing single-parent families. According to Salami & Alawode (2010), it is hard for
parents to meet the social and parental needs of their children when they are facing financial
constraints. It is also easier for a single parent to thrive well when there is sufficient financial
income to facilitate family needs as well as schooling for the children. They can even send their
children to schools of their preference. For single parents, especially mothers, limited finances
are the greatest challenge that may end up forcing children to drop out of school. Without
enough money, it hard for single parents to cater to the school needs as well as healthcare and
other basic needs for the children. Worst of all is when the number of children is such that the
parent cannot raise enough financial resources to meet their needs. Financial limitations are one
of the reasons as to why some of the children from single parents choose to engage in risky
behaviors such as drug trafficking and criminology that eventually ruin their academic life.
Parent’s Occupation
According to Sylvestre & Paez (2015), a child from a well-educated parent with high
socioeconomic status is more likely to do better in school than a child from an illiterate and lowincome family. A child from an educated background has the necessary support to form a decent
learning environment, parental guidance, and sufficient academic and textual materials,
including feeding. Such a child is also likely to be sent to a good school that guarantees good
performance. In this regard, parental occupation has a significant influence on student
performance in school. If the occupation has a tight schedule such that parent has limited with
the children early morning, and late in the evening, that parent will have minimum attention
needed to thrive the child academically, both at home and in school. According to Sylvestre &
Paez (2015), higher occupational status resulting from parental educational qualification is
closely correlated with the children’s educational choice and attainment. A single parent in this
regard may not face any significant challenge in raising and educating children if she/he holds a
higher occupational status that comes with financial sufficiency. If a single parent in question
occupies a low occupational status, the situation is directly proportional to the academic
performance of children in school.
Time Management
Time and money management is another serious challenge that Royal et al. (2017)
consider to affect single parents adversely. Balancing between work, appointments, and home
duties are quite challenging for a single parent. If such parents cannot fix better work schedules
with their employers, it is hard for them to meet all of their duties in time and still have an
opportunity to attend to their children. Following the tight schedule of their parents, children
from single-parent families have to spend much of their time handling home duties until there is
little time devoted to their education. Sylvestre & Paez (2015) carried out a study to investigate
the effects of sociological and psychological belief factors on the academic performance of
single-mother college students. Most of the participants reported being concerned about trying to
balance their time.
Conclusively, single-parent families face a host of challenges that end up disrupting the
schooling of their children. Children from such families often do not perform well because of
issues stemming from family problems. The absence of the mother or the mother is a household
that is the greatest challenge that comes along with social and economic implications. Children
in a single-parent family lack the threshold socialization needed to ensure self-actualization.
Additionally, its limited financial strength makes it hard for children from single-parent families
to attain excellence because the parent cannot meet all needs not only in school but also at home.
Sometimes the occupation can be of a tight schedule or be of low socioeconomic status until the
single parent does get the time and the financial strength needed to facilitate quality education
for the children. Sometimes also, these children are forced to squeeze their school time to be able
to handle duties at home when the parent is out for work. In the end, their devoted time for
learning is limited. In a nutshell, single parenting harms a child’s education.
Amofa, R. A. (2013). Effects of single parenting on adolescents’ academic performance.
Chaer, M. T., Wasim, A. T., & Khilmiyah, A. (2019). Children’s Education in The Story of
Single Mothers in Qur’?n. International Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2), 63-72.
Cliette, G., & Livingston, J. N. (2017). American Single-Mother Households.
Côté, J. E. (2019). Eriksonian Theory. The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development,
Goddard, M. J. (2018). Extending BF Skinner’s selection by consequences to personality change,
implicit theories of intelligence, skill learning, and language. Review of General
Psychology, 22(4), 421.
Greene, R. R. (2017). Risk and resilience theory: A social work perspective. Human behavior
theory and social work practice (pp. 315-342).
Hashmi, S. (2017). Psycho-Social development & academic achievement of a single parent-child
in Nagaland. International Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 5(1), 54-79.
Nonoyama?Tarumi, Y. (2017). Educational achievement of children from single?mother and
single?father families: The case of Japan. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(4), 915931.
Royal, K. J., Eaton, S. C., Smith, N., Cliette, G., & Livingston, J. N. (2017). The Impact of
Parental Stress and Social Support on Behavioral Outcomes of Children in African
American Single-Mother Households. Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships, 3(4),
Salami, S. O., & Alawode, E. A. (2010). Influence of single parenting on the academic
achievement of adolescents in secondary schools: Implications for counseling. Ibadan:
Department of Guidance and Counseling University of Ibadan.
Sylvestre, R., & Paez, T. (2015). The effects of single parenting on children’s educational
success. Journal of Psychology Research Proposals, 6, 22-28.
Yaw, L. H. (2016). The effect of single parenting on student academic performance in secondary
schools in Brunei. The Social Sciences, 11(5), 698-703.
Zhu, X., & Wang, Y. (2018, July). An Empirical Study on the Users’ Continuance Intention
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