Trine University Quantitative Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well Being Paper hi kevin, Research questions need sm to be answered, there are 5 questions i
Trine University Quantitative Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well Being Paper hi kevin,
Research questions need sm to be answered, there are 5 questions in it.
Need 8 copies before 18th. Thanks.
I’ve shared the sample pictures in the messages for your reference.
Thanks. BUACC5931 Assignment 1 Questions
Associations between Quantitative, Qualitative Job Insecurity and
De Witte et al. (2010) investigated the association of employees perception of quantitative and
qualitative job insecurity with job satisfaction, and psychological distress in the Belgium banking
Job insecurity is defined as the employees concerns about their work-related future. There are
two kinds of job insecurities, the quantitative job insecurity and the qualitative job insecurity.
The quantitative job insecurity is about the threat to the continuation of the job in the future. The
qualitative job insecurity is about threat to the various valued aspects of the job, such as job
content or working conditions.
Data collection and respondents
In total, there were 69,000 employees working in the 63 Belgian banks affiliated to the sectors
joint industrial committee in 2001. As questioning all employees would be too expensive, the
researchers decided to survey a sample of 15,000 employees (roughly 21%).
All the 63 banks participated in the survey. About 21% of employees in each bank were invited
to participate in the survey. Within each bank, the respondents were selected at random with no
particular quota for gender, age or employee level. The survey was based on addresses which
had been provided by the banks (name, language, address) and each randomly selected employee
received a personalized envelope through regular mail, sent to him/her by the employer. The
completed questionnaire needed to be returned (free of charge) through the internal post within
each bank. The researchers travelled to each bank to collect the completed survey.
The sample was representative for employees in the banking sector, however, not for the total
working population. More men (58.5 percent) than women (41.5 percent) participated. About
two in three respondents were between 35 and 44 years old or between 45 and 54 years old,
while about one in four was between 25 and 34 years old. Only a minority (4 percent) was
younger than 24 or older than 55. Most respondents had an education beyond high school (63.9
percent), had partners with an income and children (72.4 percent), and worked full-time (85
percent). There were about as many white-collar workers (54.4 percent) as executives (45.6
Quantitative job insecurity was measured with four items developed by De Witte (2000) on a
scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Sample items were I feel insecure about
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BUACC5931 Assignment 1 Questions
the future of my job and I am sure that I will be able to keep my job (reverse coded).
Reliability (Cronbachs alpha) equalled .89.
Qualitative job insecurity was measured with ten items from the 17 item measure that was
originally proposed by Ashford, Lee, and Bobko (1989). These job features concerned four broad
dimensions previously distinguished to describe the various characteristics of a job: job content
(autonomy, skill utilization, and specific tasks), working conditions (workload and quality of
working conditions), employment conditions (wage, working hours, and opportunities for
promotion), and social relations at work (relations with colleagues and supervisors, respectively).
Respondents had to indicate whether each of the job features would likely improve or deteriorate
in the near future (1 = strongly deteriorate; 5 = strongly improve). We recoded the items so that a
high score reflected qualitative job insecurity. Cronbachs alpha equalled .87.
Job satisfaction was measured with one item: Overall, how satisfied are you with your current
job? (1 = very dissatisfied; 5 = very satisfied).
Psychological distress was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health
Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1978). A sample item was Have you recently lost much sleep over
worry? Responses varied from 1 (less than usual) to 4 (much more than usual). Reliability
(Cronbachs alpha) was .89.
Control variables. The following social demographics and work-related factors were included:
gender (0 = men; 1 = women), age (1 = 1824; 2 = 2534; 3 = 3544; 4 = 4554; 5 = 55+),
education (0 = no education beyond high school; 1 = education beyond high school), extra
income (0 = no partner with extra income; 1 = partner with extra income), children (0 = no
children; 1 = children), occupational position (0 = white-collar worker; 1 = executive), working
hours (0 = part-time; 1 = full-time). The demographics were used as control variables in data
Instructions for answering the questions
Use at least four academic sources in English to answer the questions. The sources can be books
or peer reviewed journal articles or a combination of both books and peer reviewed journal
articles. The academic sources as well as responding to the questions will be around 2000 words
Q1: Sample size
The sample size for this study is fifteen thousand employees selected from a total of 69,000 bank
employees (about 21% of the employees). Is a sample of this size necessary? Give your reasons.
Q2: Sampling method
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BUACC5931 Assignment 1 Questions
What is the current method of sampling? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the
current sampling method?
Q3: Measures of variables
Give your comments on the reliability and validity of measures of the variables.
Q4: Collection of data on social demographics
The purpose of this research is to find the associations between quantitative and qualitative job
insecurity and well-being. However, data on variables such as gender, age, education level, extra
income were also collected. What is the purpose of collecting data on variables such as gender,
age, educational level etc.?
Q5: Research design
What research design is used for current research? What are the positive and negative side of the
current research design?
Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1989). CONTENT, CAUSE, AND CONSEQUENCES OF JOB INSECURITY: A
THEORY-BASED MEASURE AND SUBSTANTIVE TEST. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4),
De Witte, H. (2000). Arbeidsethos en jobonzekerheid: meting en gevolgen voor welzijn, tevredenheid en
inzet op het werk (Work Ethic and Job Insecurity: Measurement and Consequences for WellBeing, Satisfaction, and Performance at Work). In van groep naar gemeenschap, ed. R. Bouwen,
K. De Witte, H. De Witte, and T. Taillieu, 325350. Leuven: Garant. Goldberg, D. P. (1978).
Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
De Witte, H., De Cuyper, N., Handaja, Y., Sverke, M., Näswall, K., & Hellgren, J. (2010). Associations
between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being: A test in Belgian banks.
International Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), 40-56. doi:10.2753/IMO00208825400103
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