Tourism Assignment | Online Assignment
This list is not exhaustive, but identifies some of the key theories that you have been introduced to over the course of the module along with their application.
N.B. Some are “theories” i.e. a specific model developed by a specific author, whereas some are “concepts” i.e. an idea about something that many people may have written about e.g. Sustainable Tourism, Development paradigms……both are theoretical and are important for the exam.
Leiper’s Tourism System (1990) – explains the structure of the industry and how the components inter-relate
Butler’s Life Cycle (TALC) model (1980) – The development stages that a tourism destination passes through
Plog’s (1974) psychographic segmentation (typology) theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Cohen (1972) Four traveller types (typology) theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Poon’s (1993) Old and New Tourist theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Wickens (1998) Typology of Greek tourists – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Echtner and Ritchie (1991) – Destination image attributes – helps understand destination image composition
Crompton’s (1979) Push and Pull factors – helps understand tourists’ motivation
Fyall and Garrod (2010) Key heritage themes for heritage attraction management: Conservation; Accessibility; Education; Relevance; Entertainment/Recreation; Financial
Moscardo (1996) Mindful vs Mindless tourists – helps understand the mind-set of tourists when visiting attractions
McKercher and du Cros (2003) Identified five main types of Heritage tourists: Purposeful; Serendipitous; Sightseeing; Casual; Incidental
Tourism multiplier effect – helps understand and explain how economic benefits from tourism “trickle down”
Economic leakage – helps explain how and why money from tourism “leaks out” of the destination
Enclave tourism – a form of tourism that occurs in a small geographical area, money and tourists are kept in the enclave and locals are (to a certain extent) kept out – e.g. cruise ships, all-inclusive resorts
Commodification of culture – Greenwood (1989) – where culture is “changed” to satisfy tourist demands
Demonstration effect (Shaw and Williams, 2002) – a socio-cultural effect of tourism when tourists influence the behaviour of the host population – host communities in developing countries start to desire foreign commodities or adopt ways of living displayed by tourists.
Staging/staged authenticity (MacCannell, 1976) – a socio-cultural effect of tourism: defines a way that traditional cultures are presented (i.e. staged) to outsiders. It can be manufactured by tourism professionals (e.g. theme parks, performances), but it can be the way that locals perceive what tourists want to see and experience. Real life and culture is often hidden or relegated to areas that tourists are not likely to venture.
Doxey’s index of irritation (1976) – helps explain host (local population) attitudes and responses to Tourism
Green’s checklist (1990) – helps assess environmental impacts
Carrying capacity (Farrell, 1992) – managing impacts
Limits of acceptable change (McCool, 1996) – managing impacts – the acceptable resource and social conditions in a protected area, and the appropriate and effective actions needed to maintain those conditions.
Rostow (1967) – Stages of economic growth – helps understand the development of an economy
Burton’s (1995) Phases of travel participation – understand how propensity to travel changes according to level of economic development. The distribution and volume of tourism increases as a society become more economically developed and greater household income becomes available. Tourism development – Sharpley and Telfer (2004) identified four major paradigms of development:
Modernisation theory – (1950s and 1960s)
Dependency theory (1960s)
Neo-liberalism – (1970s and 1980s)
Alternative development theory – a set of theories that advocate economic models centering on people and the environment, with a focus on local involvement and “bottom-up” planning.
Brundtland Report (1987) – The definition of sustainable development first coined
Green Economy (UNEP, 2012) – “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities”
Tourism Planning Stakeholders – Mason (2003) identifies four key groups: the tourists themselves; the host population; the tourism industry; government agencies (at local, regional, national and international level). Plus voluntary organizations/NGOs (including charities and pressure groups) and the media.
Perspectives on tourism planning – Gunn (1994) – Top Down / Bottom Up – interactive planning, the incorporation of the local community’s opinions and desires in the planning process.
Painter (1992) – Forms of Community Participation in Tourism Planning
Ladder of Community Influence (Swarbrooke, 1999) – how much influence local community have over tourism
Gibert (1991) Energisers and effectors of demand – helps understand forces of motivation
Schmoll (1977) Decision Making Model – helps understand tourism behaviour
Mathieson and Wall (1982) Decision Making Model – helps understand tourism behaviour – 5 phase model for the consumer behaviour of tourists. Need recognition; evaluate options; decision; experience; assess satisfaction.
Dann’s 7 perspectives on tourism motivation (1981) – helps understand forces of motivation: Travel as a response to what is lacking yet desired; Destination ‘pull’ in a response to motivational ‘push’; motivation as fantasy; motivation as classified purpose; motivational typologies; motivation and tourist experiences and motivation as auto-definition and meaning.
Urry’s (1995) – Tourist Gaze – helps understand forces of motivation
Pearce’s (1993) Travel Career Ladder – helps understand tourism behaviour
McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) – 4 categories of motivator– helps understand forces of motivation Physical; Cultural; Interpersonal; Status and prestige
Gunn (1988) Destination Image Formation model organic and induced images.
Gartner (1993) further developed eight categories of image in accordance with the information sources used.
Echtner and Ritchie (1993) – destination image vary on a continuum from functional destination attributes, to psychological characteristics.
The Sandford Principle (1974) – rural tourism
Stone (2008) Thanatourism categorisation – understanding Dark Tourism
Swarbrooke (2007) Thanatourism typology – understanding Dark Tourism
Miles (2002) Shades of dark (tourism) – understanding Dark Tourism
The Heritage Forcefield model – Seaton (2001) – understanding stakeholder relationships around heritage / dark heritage attractions
Coppola’s Crisis Management Continuum (2015) – understanding the lifecycle of disaster
The following e-book is available via NTU library – use OneSearch to find it. • Jafari, J., 2002. Encyclopedia of tourism. London: Routledge. • https://ntu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1dg2idp/NTU_LMS_DS000620012 Many of the theories and concepts we have covered in the module can be found in it. Use the index facility to search for words and phrases
See the Resource list on the Tourism Learning Room on NOW:
Inclusive Assessment: The duration of 24 hours enables all reasonable adjustments to be accommodated while working online. If you have a Statement of Access any additional adjustments will be communicated to you individually by your Course Administrator and in advance of your Examination.
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Type of Examination: Open Book Examination and you may use the materials you have prepared to support you in answering the questions.
Honesty and Integrity: We expect you to act with integrity in undertaking this Examination in line with the Student Code of Conduct and the Academic Irregularities Policy. All submissions will be submitted to Turnitin for originality checking which includes checking against all other students’ work.
You should NOT:
- Copy and paste material from any source.
- Collaborate with others in completing the examination.
- Share any aspect of your work (e.g. notes, calculations, answers, sources) with other students by screenshare, social media, telephone, or email.
Materials Provided: The following are provided in the Examination (Online) content unit in the Module Learning Room.
- Online Examination Instructions and Guidance
- A copy of your Examination Paper
- A copy of your NBS Online Answer Booklet (YOU MUST USE THIS ANSWER BOOKLET TO SUBMIT YOUR ANSWERS)
PLEASE NOTE THAT THERE MAY BE QUESTION SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS INCLUDED ON THE PAPER BELOW TO HELP YOU COMPLETE ALL ELEMENTS OF EACH QUESTION ONLINE.
Expected Duration: Most students should aim to complete the Examination within the approximate time period of: 180 minutes over 24 hours. Students with a Statement of Access should complete the Examination in line with the adjustments identified in their statement.
Word Count: The total maximum word count for this Examination is: 2500 words.
The following penalties will be applied (NBS Word Count Policy-Online Examination) if the Examination word count is exceeded.
- Additional words up to 500 words, the overall grade for the piece of work will be reduced by 1 grade point (e.g. UG 2.1-Mid to 2.1-Low; PG Commendation-Mid to Commendation-Low);
- Additional work exceeds 500 words, the overall grade for the piece of work will be reduced by 3 grade points (e.g. 2.1-Mid to 2.2 Mid; PG Commendation-Mid to Pass-Mid).
- These penalties will be applied even if the reduced grade is below a Pass grade.
You are advised to submit work that is as close to the maximum word count as is practical to enable you to demonstrate that you have met all the module learning outcomes.
All non-narrative elements included in the work that require a written description ARE EXCLUDED from the word count. These include: calculations, tables, charts or diagrams.
Citing and Referencing Requirements:
- In-text citations are encouraged.
- NO reference list in Harvard style is required.
- Appendices should NOT be submitted and will NOT be graded.
Submitting your Answer Booklet:
All required examination answers MUST be typed in your copy of the NBS Online Answer Booklet.
You MUST submit your answer booklet to the required module Dropbox folder by the Submission Deadline stated above.
You should plan to submit with sufficient time to account for circumstances that are outside your control. Should you be prevented from submitting and miss the deadline due to such circumstances, then you should:
- email a description of the problem to your tutor (include a screenshot or photograph of the issue) and if possible, include a copy of your Answer Booklet in the email.
- submit your Answer Booklet to the Dropbox folder as soon as you are able to.
Distribution of Marks and Word Count for Sections in the Examination.
Below you will find, for each section of your Examination, the distribution of marks and approximate suggested word count. You are advised to use the marks allocated to each question within a section to determine how to use the overall word count.
|Section||Number of questions to be answered||Marks available for this section||Approximate word count for this section|
|B||Answer 2 from a choice of 5||30||400 per question = 800
|C||Answer 1 from a choice of 2||30||800
END OF INSTRUCTIONS