Tourism Assignment | Online Assignment

Tourism theories
This list is not exhaustive, but identifies some of the key theories that you have been introduced to over the course of the module along with their application.
N.B. Some are “theories” i.e. a specific model developed by a specific author, whereas some are “concepts” i.e. an idea about something that many people may have written about e.g. Sustainable Tourism, Development paradigms……both are theoretical and are important for the exam.
Leiper’s Tourism System (1990) – explains the structure of the industry and how the components inter-relate
Butler’s Life Cycle (TALC) model (1980) – The development stages that a tourism destination passes through
Plog’s (1974) psychographic segmentation (typology) theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Cohen (1972) Four traveller types (typology) theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Poon’s (1993) Old and New Tourist theory – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Wickens (1998) Typology of Greek tourists – helps understand tourist types and behaviour
Echtner and Ritchie (1991) – Destination image attributes – helps understand destination image composition
Crompton’s (1979) Push and Pull factors – helps understand tourists’ motivation
Fyall and Garrod (2010) Key heritage themes for heritage attraction management: Conservation; Accessibility; Education; Relevance; Entertainment/Recreation; Financial
Moscardo (1996) Mindful vs Mindless tourists – helps understand the mind-set of tourists when visiting attractions
McKercher and du Cros (2003) Identified five main types of Heritage tourists: Purposeful; Serendipitous; Sightseeing; Casual; Incidental
Tourism multiplier effect – helps understand and explain how economic benefits from tourism “trickle down”
Economic leakage – helps explain how and why money from tourism “leaks out” of the destination
Enclave tourism – a form of tourism that occurs in a small geographical area, money and tourists are kept in the enclave and locals are (to a certain extent) kept out – e.g. cruise ships, all-inclusive resorts
Commodification of culture – Greenwood (1989) – where culture is “changed” to satisfy tourist demands
Demonstration effect (Shaw and Williams, 2002) – a socio-cultural effect of tourism when tourists influence the behaviour of the host population – host communities in developing countries start to desire foreign commodities or adopt ways of living displayed by tourists.
Staging/staged authenticity (MacCannell, 1976) – a socio-cultural effect of tourism: defines a way that traditional cultures are presented (i.e. staged) to outsiders. It can be manufactured by tourism professionals (e.g. theme parks, performances), but it can be the way that locals perceive what tourists want to see and experience. Real life and culture is often hidden or relegated to areas that tourists are not likely to venture.
Doxey’s index of irritation (1976) – helps explain host (local population) attitudes and responses to Tourism
Green’s checklist (1990) – helps assess environmental impacts
Carrying capacity (Farrell, 1992) – managing impacts
Limits of acceptable change (McCool, 1996) – managing impacts – the acceptable resource and social conditions in a protected area, and the appropriate and effective actions needed to maintain those conditions.
Rostow (1967) – Stages of economic growth – helps understand the development of an economy
Burton’s (1995) Phases of travel participation – understand how propensity to travel changes according to level of economic development. The distribution and volume of tourism increases as a society become more economically developed and greater household income becomes available. Tourism development – Sharpley and Telfer (2004) identified four major paradigms of development:
 Modernisation theory – (1950s and 1960s)
 Dependency theory (1960s)
 Neo-liberalism – (1970s and 1980s)
 Alternative development theory – a set of theories that advocate economic models centering on people and the environment, with a focus on local involvement and “bottom-up” planning.
Brundtland Report (1987) – The definition of sustainable development first coined
Green Economy (UNEP, 2012) – “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities”
Tourism Planning Stakeholders – Mason (2003) identifies four key groups: the tourists themselves; the host population; the tourism industry; government agencies (at local, regional, national and international level). Plus voluntary organizations/NGOs (including charities and pressure groups) and the media.
Perspectives on tourism planning – Gunn (1994) – Top Down / Bottom Up – interactive planning, the incorporation of the local community’s opinions and desires in the planning process.
Painter (1992) – Forms of Community Participation in Tourism Planning
Ladder of Community Influence (Swarbrooke, 1999) – how much influence local community have over tourism
Gibert (1991) Energisers and effectors of demand – helps understand forces of motivation
Schmoll (1977) Decision Making Model – helps understand tourism behaviour
Mathieson and Wall (1982) Decision Making Model – helps understand tourism behaviour – 5 phase model for the consumer behaviour of tourists. Need recognition; evaluate options; decision; experience; assess satisfaction.
Dann’s 7 perspectives on tourism motivation (1981) – helps understand forces of motivation: Travel as a response to what is lacking yet desired; Destination ‘pull’ in a response to motivational ‘push’; motivation as fantasy; motivation as classified purpose; motivational typologies; motivation and tourist experiences and motivation as auto-definition and meaning.
Urry’s (1995) – Tourist Gaze – helps understand forces of motivation
Pearce’s (1993) Travel Career Ladder – helps understand tourism behaviour
McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) – 4 categories of motivator– helps understand forces of motivation Physical; Cultural; Interpersonal; Status and prestige
Gunn (1988) Destination Image Formation model organic and induced images.
Gartner (1993) further developed eight categories of image in accordance with the information sources used.
Echtner and Ritchie (1993) – destination image vary on a continuum from functional destination attributes, to psychological characteristics.
The Sandford Principle (1974) – rural tourism
Stone (2008) Thanatourism categorisation – understanding Dark Tourism
Swarbrooke (2007) Thanatourism typology – understanding Dark Tourism
Miles (2002) Shades of dark (tourism) – understanding Dark Tourism
The Heritage Forcefield model – Seaton (2001) – understanding stakeholder relationships around heritage / dark heritage attractions
Coppola’s Crisis Management Continuum (2015) – understanding the lifecycle of disaster
Further information:
The following e-book is available via NTU library – use OneSearch to find it. • Jafari, J., 2002. Encyclopedia of tourism. London: Routledge. • Many of the theories and concepts we have covered in the module can be found in it. Use the index facility to search for words and phrases
See the Resource list on the Tourism Learning Room on NOW:


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