Solution-Exploring endocrine-circulatory and respiratory | Homework Help

Title: Exploring Endocrine, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems

Instructions: Your lab report from Part 1along with the Part 2 activity will serve as a guide to answer the questions andto completethe tables for the endocrine, cardiovascular (circulatory), and respiratory systems.

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Endocrine System

The endocrine system is comprised of glands that produce chemical messengers. These messengers are called hormones. The glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, and adrenal gland. In aIDition, the pancreas, ovaries, and testes contain endocrine tissues and secrete hormones.

1. Endocrine SystemQuestion 1:How does the insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas function in glucose metabolism? Write the best combination in your own words.

Answer 1:

Insulin and glucagon work together to keep glucose levels in the blood within the normal range. When there is an elevated blood glucose level, this stimulates beta cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin. The insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells, and the liver will uptake the glucose and store it as glycogen. These actions return blood glucose levels back to normal. When there is decreased blood glucose, this stimulates the alpha cells in the pancreas to produce glucagon. The glucagon travels to the liver and facilitates the conversion of glycogen to glucose. This glucose is released in the bloodstream to return levels back to normal.


Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The heart is the pump that contracts to move the blood. The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body. The blood is the fluid that contains cells, nutrients, and gases.

2. Cardiovascular SystemBlood flows through the body in two distinct pathways: the pulmonary pathway and the systemic pathway.The blood flowing in the pulmonary pathway is deoxygenated, and it delivers this blood to the lungs to be oxygenated again.The blood flowing in the systemic pathway leaves the lungs full of oxygen and flows through the heart to be delivered to the body tissues.

Instructions: Complete the following table to demonstrate the correct order for the pulmonary and systemic circulation as you trace a drop of blood through the body.

Pulmonary Circulation

Systemic Circulation

1.      Venules

1.      Pulmonary veins

2.      Veins

2.      Left atrium

3.      Vena cava

3.      Left ventricle

4.      Right atrium

4.      Aorta

5.      Right ventricle

5.      Arteries

6.      Pulmonary arteries

6.      Arterioles

7.      Lung

7.      Capillaries

Question 2: How do the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together to deliver blood to the body tissues?

Answer 2:

The respiratory system functions in the exchange of gases with the outside environment. Oxygen is inhaled through the nasal cavity or the mouth, and it travels to the alveoli in the lungs. There, the capillaries exchange the oxygen for carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood flows back to the heart from the lungs. It enters the left side of the heart and is delivered to all the body tissues via the aorta. In the capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. This deoxygenated blood flows back to the right side of the heart and then to the lung. In the capillaries that run across the alveoli, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen that has recently been inhaled. The carbon dioxide will then be exhaled through the mouth and nasal cavity.


Respiratory System

The respiratory system functions to supply the body with oxygen. People inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This facilitates the delivery of oxygenated blood to all of the body cells.

3. Respiratory SystemExercising is an activity that requires the actions of multiple body organ systems.Each system performs its specific tasks, but all of the systems must work together to allow effective total body function during exercising.

Using the lab activity, observe and record the physiologic changes that occur during exercising using the following chart:


Breathing Rate:bpm(breaths per minute)

Pulse Rate:bpm (beats per minute)

At rest



During exercise



Immediately after exercising



5 minutes after exercising



Question 3:The body experiences some stressor likeexercise, fright, or emotional stress whether it is joy or sorrow. There are certain hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced during these stressful events. These hormones are produced by the adrenal gland, and they will have an effect on the heart rate and breathing rate. Explain how the hormones produced by the adrenal could play a role in altering the respiratory and heart rates during exercise.

Answer 3:

When this occurs, the hypothalamus receives signals about the stress response. The body produces stress hormones. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine are released into the blood from an endocrine gland known as the adrenal gland. These hormones lead to an increase in carbon dioxide, which leads to an increase in respiratory rate. Epinephrine also increases the frequency of heartbeats whereas norepinephrine causes blood vessels to constrict. Both of these events increase the heart rate, the force of individual heart contraction, and the amount of blood flow to the muscles. These prepare the body to react to the stressor that has occurred.


Question 4:

“EXPLAIN HOW THE STUDY OF SCIENCE AND THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION ARE RELATED.”  Please site particular parts of the Constitution and defend your explanation.

Deliver Length: 800 words


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