Research Paper 1

Paper instructions

Submit an outline of your Research Paper 1 along with the completed research that supports your thesis statement.

This is the thesis statement :
Benjamin Franklin lived in the 18th century and experienced the enlightenment era. The enlightenment period marks a time in America when reason and intellect informed ideas. From an early age a young man, Franklin went against societal expectations by defending the middle class from oppression of the wealthy landowners. Ultimately, Franklin was an icon of the Enlightenment by embracing science, reason, free thinking, free morality, and natural human rights. Franklin Enlightenment was evident in his religious views. He was a deist, and believed in the existences of a god, but not the omniscient God. God, according to Franklin, was a personified order of the universe and reason of nature. He devised his own set of commandments, which included thirteen viruses that would guide society’s conduct. Secondly, as a scientist, Franklin was intrigued by nature’s basic operations. He applied his self-taught scientific education to conduct experiments and construct devices required in the conduction of electricity. Using his enlightenment ideas, he discovered the basic principle of conservation of electric change. Thirdly, Franklin played a major role in the advancement and expansion of American capitalism to the world. His 1758 essay, “Way to Wealth” emphasizes the importance of industry and frugality in economic operations, and encourages people to be highly economic. There is a need for more research on Franklin’s ideas on the three areas of religion, natural science, and the economy. Research on these topics should include the
effect that Franklin’s works on these areas had at regional and global scale then and now. This information can be found in various resources on the internet through books, journal articles, and reviews made by other scholars on Franklin’s works.

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Teachers feedback not he thesis statement:
Remember that your essay has to be a literary argument/analysis. You must concentrate on some single literary element. For example, you could focus on symbolism OR the work’s structure OR character development, and so on. It sounds as if you want to concentrate on how Franklin is a representative of enlightenment thinking, but you need to concentrate on just one of the three areas for a theme, such as Deism. Then you need to pick some literary element you can trace through Franklin’s autobiography–such as the stories he tells, or the stages of his own enlightenment or his depiction of characters, etc. Get the idea? The analysis will be of this literary element and how it helps us to understand Franklin’s Deism. See the rubric for this assignment to get a better sense of how the thesis would be structured: Three examples of brief stories that Franklin tells can help the reader better understand how they illustrate his Deistic beliefs: 1, 2, and 3 (list them). You research should be in the humanities: scholarly journal articles that also analyze the author’s work, not social science or science articles about the Deism. OK? 🙂 Be sure to use MLA formatting consistently.

Paper Instructions:
It is time to begin writing the paper. To do so we will need to build the “bones” of the paper. This means we need to create the four most important sentence in the work. These four will give us the structure for the paper that will propel us to the finish line.

By this point, you should have selected a topic from the ones presented earlier and have an idea of what you will be arguing in your thesis statement. Once you have your thesis statement in some rough form you are ready to engage in research and build an outline for the paper.

Here’s a method for creating those four key elements once you have a thesis started.

Regardless of the size research papers are made up of the same elements. In simple terms that is a beginning, a middle, and an ending. As we saw earlier we call these:

An Introduction: The writer introduces the argument.

A Body: The writer provides proof to prove the argument introduced earlier.

A Conclusion: The writer shows he or she has proven her point.

Drafting the Bones
The first part of creating a paper is to get the bones of the things ready. This means that the core argument needs to be drafted (thesis statement). Once this is done there are elements like the topic sentence, title, and concluding sentence that all rely on the thesis that should be drafted next. Each of the above is placed in specific palaces in the paper so that the bones are ready.

Again, the goal is to find something to argue that is an interesting point about the literature and find academic proof to support the argument. Let’s begin an outline by recognizing that the introduction requires a few elements to be created: a thesis statement, a topic statement, and a title. In fact, they should be created in that order.

Thesis statement
First, we write the best thesis statement we can. It’s important to remember that the thesis should be placed on the first page, as the last sentence of the first paragraph. We say it “should be” there because it makes it easy for readers to find it but there is not a hard rule about the location of this element. Still, by putting it where the reader expects to find it we are helping the reader conceptualize our argument.

The good news is that once you’ve written the thesis you have finished the most important part of both the outline and the paper.

Topic sentence
The topic sentence tells you all you need to know in its name: its the paper’s topic. The topic need not explore the argument but instead gives the reader a very broad idea about what the paper will be about. The topic should be placed as the first sentence of the first paragraph on the first page. Thus, the topic comes before the thesis.

The topic sentence is a watered-down version of the thesis. Now that you’ve added a thesis the topic sentence is easy. It is an “attention grabber” that reflects the thesis. Let’s look at two examples: one an academic paper and one that is a functioning argument that shows how an argument is built:

Let’s say your roommate tells you she is getting a puppy and you hate puppies (what’s wrong with you?) so you plan to argue against getting a puppy. You need a thesis for your argument like:

We should not get a puppy. That’s your thesis: no puppy.

You expect to need to create a series of reasons that getting the fuzzy cutie is a bad idea but for now, we just need a thesis to argue and ours is no puppy.

The above is a non-academic argument. But it is the same principle as creating an academic one. What if instead of arguing with the roommate about a puppy we are instead writing a research paper about Huck Finn. After reading the novel we feel that Mark Twain was writing about racism in the American South. That too is an argument: Twain’s novel Huck Finn is a book about how bad racism is in the South.

Non Academic Thesis Academic Thesis
We can’t get a puppy. Huck Finn is a book where the author is saying there’s racism in the South.
The topic sentence we need to create simply tells the reader what we are going to be thinking about. It lets the reader know the topic. Let’s add a topic sentence to our tables. Remember that the topic will come BEFORE the thesis.

Non Academic Thesis Academic Thesis
We can’t get a puppy. Huck Finn is a book where the author is saying there’s racism in the South.
Non Academic Topic Sentence Academic Topic Sentence
We need to talk about this puppy idea. Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is an important glimpse into the culture and social norms of the US South in the 1860s.
As you can see from the above the relationship for the thesis ad topic sentence is that the topic introduces the broad topic and the thesis introduced the defined argument the paper will make. Many students try to write the topic first. This is not possible. Until the thesis is crafted the topic is unknown.

The paper’s title
It is a good idea to write the paper’s title once the topic sentence and thesis are in place. The paper above now has a topic sentence in place as the first sentence of the work and a thesis in place as the last sentence of the first paragraph. The title is simply a condensed version of the topic sentence and thesis sentence. A good title tells the reader what the argument will be. Often writers now take key words in the topic and thesis and utilize them to form a coherent title:

Non Academic Thesis Academic Thesis
We can’t get a puppy Twain’s Huck Finn considers how racism in the American South in the 1860s is eroding the moral character of the nation.
Non Academic Topic Sentence Academic Topic
We need to talk about this puppy idea Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is an important glimpse into the culture and social norms of the US South in the 1860s.
Non Academic Title Academic Title
No Puppy: We Just Can’t Racism and the Moral Erosion of the American South in Twain’s Huck Finn.
As you can see from above the thesis statement has been improved in the above. Remember, that your paper is a constantly improving document. In particular, the thesis statement needs to be revised often for tone and content. If you are working in early drafts its a good idea to put in a simple version of your idea so that you record your idea. It is fine to work on the tone and clarity of this in later drafts.

Now that we have done these three items we have engaged in the process that sets the bones of the paper for us. With a little work, we will be able to fill up our introduction from topic to thesis and have a completed segment. Competing for these key elements creates our outline as we move forward.

Concluding Statement
The concluding statement is a very simple thing to write but is also a vital element to the paper. This sentence will be placed as the first sentence in the very last paragraph of the paper. It functions as a device that reminds the reader what our original thesis was so that we can conclude the paper by showing how this argument was proven by our evidence.

Thus, the concluding statement is just the thesis statement again but constructed in a new way. Very often a writer can do this simply by swapping the subject and object of the thesis:

Thesis Statement: We can’t get a puppy

Concluding Statement: Getting a puppy now is something we can’t do.

Both sentences state the same thing. Since they are found at the start and end of the paper they act as bookends for our argument. It is a good idea to draft them at the same time and place them in the paper now to serve as a road map for you as you write the paper. These two elements tell you what you should be arguing to get from and to.

Non Academic Thesis Academic Thesis
We can’t get a puppy. Twain’s Huck Finn considers how racism in the American South in the 1860s is eroding the moral character of the nation.
Non Academic Topic Sentence Academic Topic Sentence
We have to talk about this puppy idea. Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is an important glimpse into the culture and social norms of the US South in the 1860s.
Non Academic Title Academic Title
No Puppy: We Just Can’t Racism and the Moral Erosion of the American South in Twain’s Huck Finn
Non Academic Concluding Sentence Academic Concluding Sentence
Getting a puppy now is something we can’t do. Twain’s commentary on racism is simply ubiquitous in his novel Huck Finn.
Now we have the basics ready to deploy to the paper.

The Non-Academic examples provided above simply demonstrate that creating an argument is something we all do. We have been arguing our entire lives to get things that we want and, so, creating an academic argument is structured in the same way. The difference in tone, word choice, and the complexity of the argument.

See if you can get these four sentences ready this week.

Rubric- Assignment
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Assignment ideas are stated clearly and easy to understand.
30.0 pts
Exemplary- Ideas are stated clearly and easy to understand.
20.0 pts
Proficient- Ideas are stated clearly and easy to understand with minimal distractions.
10.0 pts
Basic- Writing needs improvement. Ideas were hard to follow and there was no general flow of the topic.
0.0 pts
No-Submission- The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components outlined in the topic.
30.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Purposefully addresses all portions of the topic and has a fully developed thesis.
30.0 pts
Exemplary- Purposefully addresses all portions of the topic and has a fully developed thesis.
20.0 pts
Proficient- Slightly underdeveloped thesis and purpose. Needs further work.
10.0 pts
Basic- Purpose and thesis are partially underdeveloped.
0.0 pts
No-Submission- The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components outlined in the topic.
30.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Major supporting ideas are thoughtful, readily identifiable and well-developed in unified paragraphs with concrete, substantial and relevant information.
30.0 pts
Exemplary- Major supporting ideas are thoughtful, readily identifiable and well-developed in unified paragraphs with concrete, substantial and relevant information.
20.0 pts
Proficient-Supporting ideas are relevant and developed in unified paragraphs with substantial information.
10.0 pts
Basic- Supporting ideas are not relevant, and/or paragraphs need to be unified with substantial information.
0.0 pts
No-Submission- The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components outlined in the topic.
30.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Comfortable command of the language, makes precise word choices, and shows few – if any -errors in usage or mechanics.
10.0 pts
Exemplary- Comfortable command of the language, makes precise word choices, and shows few – if any -errors in usage or mechanics.
5.0 pts
Proficient- Word choices are precise, though there are some errors in usage or mechanics, few are significant.
3.0 pts
Basic- The essay uses standard diction and appropriate word choices, but there may be a pattern of minor errors accompanied by a few significant errors in usage or mechanics.
0.0 pts
No-Submission- The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components outlined in the topic.
10.0 pts

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