privatization of the public transportation, more specifically buses.
Your assignment is to produce a report in response to a new government minister:
Write a confidential report of no more than 1,700 words to a new government minister. In this
report, identify a clear problem that needs to be addressed by a new or revised policy. The
purpose of the report is to advise the minister on which stakeholders to involve, why and how in
the process of making the policy (i.e. policy formulation). The report should be informed by
theories and concepts included in the module to support your advice. Include a list of references
at the end of the report (Harvard style).
The criteria that will be used to assess the assignment are:
1. Does the report set out clearly what the problem is that the new/revised policy will address?
2. Are the actors/groups/stakeholders that should be involved in the policy process clearly set
3. Is it explained why these actors should be involved and not others?
4. Does the report include discussion of when in the policy process the actors should be
involved and how (i.e. what methods)?
5. Does the report clearly draw on at least one area of theory or one approach to analysing
6. Is the report structured and written in a way that flows well and connections are clearly made
between different parts of the report?
7. Is there a clear conclusion, reinforcing the key messages to the Minister?
Notes: use the form to organize the stakeholders in different matrices according to their interest
and power as shown down with explanation.
– Use the module, approach, and theories which is stated below or attach in an
– Use sources in google scholar as it need.
– No introduction direct describe a problem and short, then continue.
– Agenda setting models, use only one theory. When you use one be critical, may be theory or
model not fit exactly all steps so you need to state that.
1. You can refer to a fictitious problem, policy, country and stakeholders – they do not have to be
real – the case could also be a mixture of real and imagined (education, energy, economic, new
tax, environment etc.).
2. Make the description of the problem focused and short, so that it is very clear what the
problem is. The description of the problem provides context and rationale for the advice that you
3. You can focus on the policy formulation stage rather than covering the ‘policy cycle’ – this
stage can also be seen as a process with ‘sub-stages’.
4. Rather than specify theories/approaches, aim to use the language and insights, e.g. talk
about resources that actors may have, who they represent, who they interact with and form
alliances with, how the type of issue (see agenda setting models) might affect the advice.
5. In terms of how actors could be involved, this could include one-to-one meetings, invitation to
workshops, responding to draft policies.
• Policy Cycle
• Agenda-Setting: Important Questions
§ How does a problem come to be on the policy agenda in the first place and, by
implication, can theories (agenda setting models) help explain what is going on?
§ Who sets the policy agenda and what is on it (and equally as significant, what is not on
§ Who decides, why and in whose interest do they decide?
§ How and why do some issues get on the policy agenda, while others don’t?
Agenda setting models 4 MODELS:
o Hogwood and Gunn: agenda-setting ingredients (1984):
– Crisis potential
– Extent of impact
– Power connotations
– (these ideas help us analyse why an issue makes it on to the agenda)
o Cobb, Ross and Ross – agenda building model (1976):
– The outside-initiative model (pluralist)
– The mobilisation model (centralised)
– The inside-access model (captured)
– (these ideas help describe how an issue gets on the agenda, but not why)
o Downs’ Issue Attention Cycle (1972):
o Kingdon’s policy windows: Multiple streams
Three streams to be linked for agenda setting:
– Problem: perception of problems as public problems
– Policy: consists of experts and analysts examining problems and proposing
– Political: composed of national mood, administrative or legislative turnover,
interest group campaigns
Private Sector Stakeholders Public Sector Stakeholders Civil Society Stakeholder
Corporations and businesses
Individual business leader
Ministers and advisors (executive)
Civil servants and departments (bureaucracy)
Elected representatives (Legislature
Quangos and commissions
International bodies (World Bank, UN)
Schools and Universities
Social movements and advocacy groups
Organize the stakeholders in different matrices according to their interest and power.
Issue Attention Cycle
(A. Downs, 1972)
2. Alarmed discovery
3. Realising costs of
4. gradual decline of public interest