Nursing Assignment | Custom Assignment

Identify and discuss at least two potential ethical issues that could be of concern for nurses with telehealth delivered care.

Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. Please refer to upload files for citation guidelines

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APA Style Guide

St. Thomas University

American Psychological Association (APA) rules for formatting papers, in-text citations, and end references based on the sixth edition of the Publication Manual

  • Typography
    • Typeface should be Times New Roman or Courier 12 point
    • If not using Times New Roman, then another serif typeface should be used for its readability. Only use different typeface in figure descriptions to add style to the paper (section 8.03).
  • Line Spacing
    • Use double-spacing throughout the entire paper.
    • To add double-spacing in Microsoft Word, highlight all the text you want double-spaced, then click on Page Layout. Next to the word Paragraph click on the arrow. Under Spacing, Line Spacing, select Double and then click OK.
    • Put two spaces after the period for each sentence in the body of the paper (Note, use only one space after a period in your references at the end of the paper). Microsoft Word does not have a setting to automatically put in two spaces at the end of a sentence, but you can set-up the grammar check to alert you when only one space is used.
  • Margins:
    • Leave 1 inch margins from top to bottom and side to side (1 inch on all sides).
    • Microsoft Word usually is set to 1 in. margins. You can check this by clicking on Page Layout, then click on Margins. The margin you are using is highlighted, select Normal if it is not already selected. 
  • Number of Spaces after a Period
    • APA style recommends placing two spaces after a period that ends a sentence.
    • You can read more about it in the APA Style Handbook on pages 87-88.
    • Microsoft Word 2010 and later editions does not allow the user to put in two spaces after a period in any automatic way.
    • You can set-up your grammar check to alert you when you have failed to place two spaces after a period. To do this, go to File-Options-Proofing-Writing Style-Grammar-Settings. In Spaces Required Between Sentences, select 2.
    • Now when you type your paper and insert only one space after a period, you will see a small green squiggly where you fail to put in two spaces, once you do a grammar check of your paper. Keep in mind that APA does not call for two spaces after any period (such as for abbreviations or in the reference list) ONLY when a period ends a sentence do you need two spaces.
  • Title Page:
    • Title of the paper
    • Name(s) of the author(s)
    • Name of the institution
    • Author Note (p. 24)
  • Abstract (p. 25)
  • Page numbers: should be in the upper right-hand corner of each page
  • Paper should be 8 ½ by 11 inch white paper
  • Running Head: TITLE (from left margin in header)
  • Headings in APA Format
    • Headings, sections, subsections, or levels of subordination are a style of dividing your research paper into major parts, then minor subsections. Most college papers do not need headings, especially if you are only producing two to five pages. However, if your professor requests you use headings or your are writing an especially long or detailed paper, then use headings to help readers navigate your text. Follow the APA style rules for creating the correct level of heading. Always start with a level one heading and drill down to the last subsection possible (five) in order as seen below.
Levels of Headings
LevelFormat
1Center, Bold, Upper and Lowercase Heading  
2Flush Left, Bold, Upper and Lowercase Heading  
3      Indent, bold, lowercase paragraph heading with a period at the end.  
4     Indent, bold, italics, lowercase paragraph heading with a period at the end.
5     Indent, italics, lowercase paragraph heading with a period at the end.  
  • Quotes
    • Quotations of fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text and enclosed with quotation marks.
    • Quotations of 40 or more words should be typed as a double-spaced block with an additional ½ margin and no quotation marks.
  • In-Text Citations
    • In-text (parenthetical citations) using the name-year system usually contain the author’s last name and publication year of the reference.
    • If authorship is uncertain, use the first word or first few words of the title and the year (p. 176). Titles of an article, chapter, or web page should be given in double quotation marks. Titles of a periodical, book, brochure, or report should be italicized.
    • Each in-text citation should correspond to a citation in the list of references at the end of the paper.
  • How to Cite References in Your Text
    • In the name-year system, in-text references contain the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication of the document. Enclose the name and year in parenthesis. Leave a space between name and year. Place a comma after the author’s name.
    • Example:
      • The most recent report on the use of experiments shows a correlation between results and participants (Joseph, 2018).

OR

  • Joseph’s (2018) recent report on the use of experiments shows a correlation between results and participants.
    • Exceptions to this rule occur when no definitive author or publication date is present. This often occurs when citing websites. When no date is available use the abbreviation n.d. for no date. When no author is available you will use a corporation name, an editor, or a title of the webpage/website/chapter/encyclopedia entry. See in-text examples for a full explanation.
    • Page number(s) can be included to be more precise in you citations. When using a direct quote page numbers are necessary.
    • Example:
      • Joseph, Victor, Jean and Smith (2018) describe nursing metaparadigm “as the process of …” (pp. 18-19).

OR

  • The authors describe nursing metaparadigm “as the process of …” (Joseph, Victor, Jean and Smith, 2018, pp. 18-19).
  • Exceptions to this rule occur when no definitive author, publication date, or page numbers are present. This often occurs when citing websites. When no date is available use the abbreviation n.d. for no date. When no author is available you will use a corporation name, an editor, or a title of the webpage/website/chapter/encyclopedia entry. When no page numbers are available use a paragraph number abbreviated para. only if the paragraphs are numbered for you. If there is a clear section title you may use this as well. See in-text examples for a full explanation.
  • In-Text Citations Examples
    • One author
      • Give the author’s name and the year of publication. If the author’s name is stated in the sentence, always place the year in parentheses immediately after the name.
      • (Clark, 1998).
      • Clark’s (1998) study shows that…
  • Two authorsGive both names separated by the word and when including the names in the text of a sentence. For citations in parentheses use an ampersand (&).Flannigan and McBride (2001) state the results…(Flannigan & McBride, 2001).
  • Three to five authorsGive all the authors names for the first in-text citation, then use et al. for subsequent citations.First citation: Sawyer, Jimmerson, Bradley, Connors, and Ramirez (2010)…Sawyer et al. (2010)…

OR

  • First citation: (Sawyer, Jimmerson, Bradley, Connors & Ramirez, 2010)
    • Second citation: Sawyer et al. (2010)…
  • Six or more authorsGive only the first author’s name followed by et al. (not in italics) and the year for all in-text citations.Martinez et al. (1990) describe…(Martinez et al., 1990)If the first author’s name and the years of publications are the same for several references, include enough additional co-author names to eliminate ambiguity. Include a comma after the last name.(Martinez, Fuentes, et al., 1990).(Martinez, Aguilar, et al., 1990).
  • Multiple works by the same authorFor works published in the same year by the same author, add alphabetic designators to the year in both the in-text reference and reference list.(Anderson, 1997a, 1997b).For works published in different years by the same author, place years in chronological sequence separated by commas.(McBride, 2003, 2007).
  • Authors with the same surnameWhen authors of 2 works published in the same year have the same surname, include the initials of the author in the in-text citation and separate the names by a semicolon and space. When using initials in the text of a sentence do not invert the first name.J. Dawson (1986) and T. Dawson (1986) accept the…(Dawson, J., 1986; Dawson, T., 1986)
  • Organizations as authorsIf an organizational author is referenced only once or twice in a document, the full organizational name is acceptable. A shortened form can be used in the in-text reference if the organization has a familiar abbreviation. If using an abbreviated name for an organization, spell out the full name the first time referenced and give the abbreviation.First citation: National Library of Medicine (NLM, 2018)…Second citation: NLM (2018)

OR

  • First citation: (National Library of Medicine [NLM], 2018).
  • Second citation: (NLN, 2018)
  • Works without authorsBegin the in-text reference with the first word or first few words of the title, followed by a comma (a lengthy title may be shortened). Titles of an article, chapter or web page should be placed in double quotation marks. Titles of a periodical, book, report, or brochure should be italicized.Article title: (“A New Deal,” 2003).Book title: (The Open Box, 1823).Long book title:  (Handbook of Geriatric, 2000).Reference: Handbook of geriatric drug therapy. (2000). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse.
  • Works with Anonymous listed as authorWhen a title lists the author of a work as Anonymous give the word Anonymous as the author’s name in-text and in the reference list. Do not use the term Anonymous for works without authors listed.Anonymous (1983) said…(Anonymous, 1983). 
  • Works without datesPlace the abbreviation n.d. (for no date) in place of the year for in-text citations and the reference list.Brigmeyer (n.d.) associates…(Brigmeyer, n.d.).
  • Works without Pagination (when using direct quote)Use the abbreviation para. to indicate a numbered paragraph rather than a page number.Horowitz (2011) says, “those who…” (para. 3).He says, “those who…” (Horowitz, 2011, para. 3).

OR

  • When no page numbers or paragraph numbers are present, use a heading title and the number of the paragraph after the heading.
    • Kona (2010) says of George Carlin’s humor that, “comedy is a disguise for unmasking other faces” (“The Carlinesque in George Carlin,” para 2).

Chart of In-Text Citations Examples

Type of CitationFirst Citation in TextSubsequent Citations in TextParenthetical Format, First Citation in TextParenthetical Format, Subsequent Citation in Text
1 work by 1 authorHarris (2003)Harris (2003)(Harris, 2003)(Harris, 2003)  
1 work by 2 authorsHarris and Ramirez (2011)Harris and Ramirez (2011)(Harris & Ramirez, 2011)(Harris & Ramirez, 2011)  
1 work by 3 authorsPeet, Young, and Collins (1988)Peet et al. (1988)(Peet, Young, & Collins, 1988)  (Peet et al., 1988)
1 work by 4 authorsPeet, Young, Collins, and Darcy (2008)Peet et al. (2008)(Peet, Collins, Young, & Darcy, 2008)  (Peet et al., 2008)
1 work by 5 authorsPeet, Collins, Young, Darcy, and McHugh (2002)Peet et al. (2002)(Peet, Collins, Young, Darcy, & McHugh 2002)  (Peet et al., 2002)
1 work by 6 or more authorsHughes et al. (2009)Hughes et al. (2009)  (Hughes et al., 2009)(Hughes et al., 2009)
Groups (readily identified through abbreviations) as authorsCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2016)   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 1997)  (CDC, 2016)         NOAA (1997)(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016).   (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 1997)(CDC, 2016)         (NOAA, 1997)
Groups (no abbreviation) as authorsStanford University (2010)Stanford University (2010)(Stanford University, 2010)(Stanford University, 2010)
American Psychological Association. (2009). Crediting sources: Citing references in text. Publication manual           
      of the American psychological association
(6th ed., p. 177) Washington, D.C.: Author.  

Formatting Your References

The reference list is the last page of your paper. References begin on a separate page from the last page of your writing. Put the word “References” at the top center of the page. Your reference list is alphabetized according to the first word of each end reference. The reference list is double spaced and formatted using a hanging indent. To put in a hanging indent, type your references normally. When finished, highlight the reference list and click on the arrow in the corner of the paragraph tab in Word.

References
  • Book by one author:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Year of publication). Title. Location: Publisher.
  • E-Book by one author:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Year of publication). Title. [Reader Software]. Retrieved from: Web address or Digital Object Identifier.
  • Book by multiple authors:
    • Author’s last name, initials & Author’s last name, initials. (Year of publication). Title. Location: Publisher.
  • Book with more than seven authors:
    • Use et al. after first author’s name
  • Book compiled by an editor:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Ed). (year of publication). Title. Location: publisher.
  • An article from a book:
    • Author’s of article last name, initials. (Year of publication). In editor’s last name, initials (Ed.), Title. (page numbers for article). Location: Publisher.
  • Book by a corporate author:
    • Name of corporate body. (Year of publication). Title. Location: Publisher
  • Bible:
    • Title. (Year of publication). Location: Publisher.
  • An unpublished dissertation:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Year accepted). Title. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). granting college or university, city of institution, state of institution.
  • Article in periodical:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number, pages. Retrieved from: Web address or Digital Object Identifier. [for online retrieval only].
  • Online source:
    • Author’s last name, initials. (Year of publication). Title. Retrieved from: Web address or use the Digital Object Identifier.
  • For Blogs, Discussion Boards, Wikis, and Video Blogs Postings see pp. 214-215

Reference Examples

Book with Editors
Material Type          In-text Citation             Reference    
   General Format:
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (YEAR). Title of chapter. In Editor’s First Initial. Last Name (Ed.), Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publishing Company.  
Book with editor(s) and
author(s) 
(Martin, 1978)  Martin, E. W. (1978). The theory of care. In A. Ruskin et al. (Eds.), Hazards of primary care in aging populations (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott.   Editors are necessary when citing a chapter from an edited book with individual authors for each chapter, commonly referred to as anthologies.      
Book with editor(s) and no author  (Leonard & Crawford, 2002)  Leonard W. R. & Crawford M. H. (Eds.). (2002). Human biology of pastoral populations. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Editors and translators are required if no primary author can be determined.  
Entry in a reference work, with an editor and no author  (“Relativity,” 2005).  Relativity. (2005).  In B. Schulyer (Ed.), Psychological terms and meanings (2nd ed., Vol. 35, pp. 235-238). London, England: Bookies.
Books with Organization as Author 
Material Type          In-text Citation             Reference     
Book with organization as author First citation: (National Fire Protection Association [NFPA], 2009).   Subsequent citation: (NFPA, 2009).National Fire Protection Association. (2009). Fundamentals of fire fighting skills (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.    Type out the full organization name for the reference list.     
Book with the same organization as author and publisherFirst citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009). Subsequent citation: (APA, 2009).American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.   When the same organization is listed as the author and the publisher, place the word, Author, in place of the publisher name. 
Journal Article   
Material Type          In-text Citation             Reference     
  A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a way to keep track of content in a digital environment. Many publishers are assigning a DOI to each article in an issue. The DOI is unique and can be used by the reader to locate more citation information about the article. When a DOI is assigned, use it in place of other locating material (URL or database name). The ##-## represents the page number range of the article. The first example refers to print journals or journals from a database without a DOI assigned. The second format is for any journal article when a DOI is assigned. The third example is for journal articles available for free online, no DOI assigned. General Format: Author’s Last name, First Initial. Second Initial., (YEAR, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), ##-##. Author’s Last name, First Initial. Second Initial., Author’s Last name, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author’s Last name, First Initial Second Initial. (YEAR, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), ##-##. doi:XXXXXXXX Author’s Last name, First Initial. Second Initial. (YEAR, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), ##-##. doi:XXXXXXXX   Author’s Last name, First Initial. Second Initial. (YEAR, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), ##-##. Retrieved from URL   
Article from a print journal (no DOI)(Marshall & Clark, 2010).Marshall, M. & Clark, A. M. (2010). Is clarity essential to good teaching? Teaching Philosophy, 33(3), 271-289. Notice that periodical titles are capitalized like the standard title capitalization where all major words in the title are capitalized, Title of Periodical.   
Article from a print journal (with DOI)(Chaffee & Weston, 2010).Chaffee, B. W. & Weston, S. J. (2010). Association between chronic periodontal disease and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Periodontology, 81(12), 1708-1724. doi: 10.1902/jop.2010.100321   
  DOIs now frequently are made to be resolved more easily by adding the prefix http://dx.doi.org/ When this prefix is used, you do not need the doi: before the http in your reference. See an example below.   
Article from a journal in a database with a DOI with the http prefix(Cheung, Kulasegaram, Woods, Moulton, Ringsted, & Brydges, 2017).Cheung, J. H., Kulasegaram. K. M., Woods, N. N., Moulton, C., Ringsted, C. V., &  Brydges, R. (2017, April 22). Knowing how and knowing why: Testing the effect of instruction designed for cognitive integration on procedural skills transfer. Advances in Health Science Education, 23(1), 61-74. https://doi-org.db12.linccweb.org/10.1007/s10459-017-9774-1    
Article from a journal in a database (no DOI)(Badke, 2009).Badke, W. (2009). How we failed the net generation. Online, 33(4), 47-49. 
Article from database or Internet (with DOI)  First citation: (Whitlock, Eells, Cummings, & Purington, 2009). Subsequent citation:
(Whitlock et al., 2009).
Whitlock, J., Eells, G., Cummings, N., & Purington, A. (2009). Nonsuicidal self-injury in college populations: Mental health provider assessment of prevalence and need. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 23(3), 172-183. doi: 10.1080/87568220902794366 
Article from the Internet (available to anyone, no DOI assigned)First citation: (Negi, Bender, Furman, Fowler, & Prickett, 2010). Subsequent citation:
(Negi et al., 2010).
Negi, N. J., Bender, K. A., Furman, R., Fowler, D. N., & Prickett, J. C. (2010). Enhancing self-awareness: A practical strategy to train culturally responsive social work students. Advances in Social Work, 11(2), 223-234. Retrieved from http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsocialwork/article/view/482/1787 
 Magazine Article 
 Material Type          In-text Citation             Reference     
 Article from a print magazine(Markels, 2007).Markels, A. (2007, July 23-30). Taking credit’s temperature: Risky home loans run a fever, and the market prays it doesn’t spread. U.S. News & World Report, 143(3), 37-39.   Notice that periodical titles are capitalized like the standard title capitalization where all major words in the title are capitalized, Title of Periodical.     
 Magazine article from a database(Breslin, 1963).Breslin, J. (1963, December 14). A death in emergency room no. one. Saturday Evening Post, 44, 30-31. 
 Magazine article from the Internet (freely available)(Copeland, 2011).  Copeland, L. (2011, January 26). The anti-social network: By helping other people look happy, Facebook is making us sad. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/ 

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