Microcystis Aeruginosa & Salmonella Enteritidis Assignment | Online Assignment
I will have to reply individually on each of the chosen student(s) topic. I must reply on the same Post the student created with his/her Paper on their topic. Therefore, my reply must begin addressing the student whose topic I’m replying to. Ex: microcystis aeruginosa reply needs to begin by addressing Julissa (Student who wrote on this microorganism) & salmonella enteritidis reply needs to begin by addressing Taylar (Student who wrote on this microorganism)
For the week 2 discussion we are asked to pick a microbe. I chose number fourteen, microcystis aeruginosa. At first, it was slightly difficult to find big news information on this microbe, but after a little research I was able to find exactly what I was looking for. I ended up finding information about my microbe in a MAJOR news article such as, an ABC News article. This news article talks about how a certain, “toxic algae” (aka microcystis aeruginosa) contaminating the Oregon River (Rudra, 2014). First, the article explains that they are warning all the residents surrounding the river to take caution when it comes to the Oregon River, because there were toxic algae found (Rudra, 2014). After officials took proper protocol to test the water of the Oregon River, the officials ruled out the toxic algae found was called, Microcystis Aeruginosa (Rudra, 2014). This article also went on to explain that this particular toxin causes numbness, tingling, dizziness, weakness, and diarrhea (Rudra, 2014). Not only did it discuss the risks, but it went on to explain that children and pets are ESPECIALLY at risk (Rudra, 2014). This toxin is actually fatal for dogs. If dogs were to drink water from the Oregon River they would die (Rudra, 2014). Even though this river was very toxic, it did not affect the drinking water of Toledo whatsoever (Rudra, 2014). Another precaution that people might need to take is being careful when eating fish and to avoid eating ALL fresh water clams (RUDRA, 2014). Scientists believe that these certain toxic algae’s can bloom when there is some sort of change in the chemicals in the water (Rudra, 2014). During that entire time people in the city of Toledo refrained from drinking water at all, because they were so nervous about the toxic algae (Rudra, 2014).
Geetika, Rudra. (2014). Toxic Algae Contaminates Oregon River. ABC News [Online]. Available: https://abcnews.go.com/US/toxic-algae-contaminates-oregon-river/story?id=25657884
Salmonella Enteritidis is a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative aerobic, gram negative bacterium. It is a species of genus Salmonella and its scientific name is Salmonella enterica. Its class is Gammaproteobacteria. Salmonella Enteritidis is found in normal appearing eggs and uncooked chicken. If these eggs are eaten raw or undercooked you can become infected with this bacterium. I causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps and vomiting. Although it causes infection in your GI tract in some cases it can spread to other areas of the body. This can cause serious illness. Most people recover without treatment but it is possible to become very ill or even die from it. In severe cases you may require hospitalization where you are given IV fluids and anti-diarrheal medications. You may even be given antibiotics to kill the bacteria. The symptoms usually last 4-7 days. Salmonella Enteritidis causes an estimated 1 million cases of domestically acquired foodborne illness in humans annually.
Voluntary farm-based interventions including the use of pasteurized egg products in institutions, consumer education and attention to refrigeration of eggs has helped to decrease rates of infection. Salmonella is tracked using data from the CDC Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network. The USDA/FSIS implemented a strategy that includes testing for Salmonell at US broiler chicken processing plants. It is used to verify whether Salmonella performance standards are being met. FSIS inspects liquid, frozen and dried egg products. It tests samples from pasteurization processes monthly with use of PCR for Salmonella, followed by cultures for PCR-positive samples. Changes were examined in the proportion of persons who reported international travel, whose infections were reported to be associated with outbreaks and who were hospitalized or died. Incidences of SE infections peaked during the summer months and was lowest during the late winter months. During the late 1990’s confirmed SE infection decreased. (H.Kang,C.Lovi.R.I. Clavijo, L.W. Riley (2006)
The use of antibiotic drugs in treating the infection is proving less effective because of the rise of antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella. This brings a growing need for alternative treatment which includes the use of probiotic micro-organisms. Investigations into prophylactic and therapeutic effacies of probiotics have demonstrated antagonistic properties against Salmonella and other enteropathogenic bacteria.
There have been studies to evaluate the efficacy of flushing surfaces with untreated feed vs the use of two different dry chemical sanitizers on residual surface and feed Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Feed samples were collected and targeted locations on surfaces within the mixer were swabbed to confirm Salmonella negative.
When it comes to intestinal infections, Salmonella poisoning is the second most common cause in the US. There are nearly 400 deaths occurring from Salmonella even though most cases are not reported. Salmonella typically happens when a person eats food that is contaminated with feces of humans or animals that carry the bacteria. It comes from meat, poultry and eggs but is can also com from fruits and vegetables that are contaminated. There are ways to help protect yourself against bacteria. These include hand washing and washing surfaces that come into contact with raw foods. (Abraham Majek, Todor Vasiljevik (2018)
There has been trials of vaccinating chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis. These chickens were vaccinated on their 2nd, 46th,and 84th day of life with the live attervated S. Enteritidis strain IDT NO 4411/014. The number of challenge strain positive tissue samples and cloacal swabs was significantly reduced in vaccinated animals. Because poultry products have been identified as one major source of SE and STM in human food the EU has implemented the obligation of the vaccination of chicken flocks.
References: Microbiology research.org
Abraham Majek, Todor Vasiljevic (2018)
H.kang, C.Lovi, R.I Clavijo, L.W Riley (2006)