Medicine and Health | Homework Help

? What are the four properties of skeletal muscle?

? What is the difference between a muscle?s origin and insertion?
? Describe the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction: When the muscle develops tension and shortens, what happens to the I band? the A band? the H zone?
? Explain the power stroke and crossbridge cycling.
? What triggers chemomechanical coupling? What roles do ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis play in the process?

? Voluntary movement is initiated in which part of the brain?
? What roles do the cerebellum and basal ganglia play during voluntary movement?
? What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons? Under which classification does a motor neuron fall?
? How is a motor neuron?s resting membrane potential created and what happens when its membrane becomes depolarized? repolarized? hyperpolarized?
? What does the innervation ratio of a motor unit indicate about its function?

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? Describe the role of proprioceptors during voluntary motion: How do the Stretch Reflex and Tendon Reflex differ?

? What is the difference between a single twitch, unfused tetanus and fused tetanus?
? How does the nervous system gradate tension generation when activating motor units?
? Summarize the difference between type I, type IIa and type IIx fibers: Which fibers are activated first according to the size principle of motor unit recruitment?
? Does maximal recruitment generally occur due to voluntary activation? What dictates the relative contribution of recruitment vs. rate coding in gradating muscle


? Define fatigue of voluntary muscular effort: What is the difference between fatigue and task failure during voluntary movement?
? What are the two components of neuromuscular fatigue? During an eight-repetition resistance-training set to momentary muscular failure, which form of fatigue will

likely predominantly impair performance in a well-motivated subject?
? What are the potential sources of neuromuscular fatigue in the central nervous system? peripheral nervous system? muscle?
? What does electromyography measure and how will the EMG signal change during maximal sustained voluntary contractions? submaximal sustained voluntary contractions?
? What is muscle wisdom and muscle potentiation?

Recommended Texts (see above):

Baechle, T.R. and Earle, R.W. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 3rd Edition. Human Kinetics, Illinois, 2008.

Brooks, G.A., Fahey, T.D. and Baldwin, K.M. Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005.

Enoka, R.M. Neuromechanics of Human Movement 3rd Edition. Human Kinetics, Illinois, 2008.

Gardiner, P.F. Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity. Human Kinetics, Illinois, 2001.

Komi, P.V. Strength and Power in Sport 2nd Edition. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 2008.

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.L. and Katch, V.L. Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance 7th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Maryland, 2009.

Powers, S.K. and Howley, E.T. Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.

Silverthorn, D.U. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 5th Edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2010.

Tipton, C.M. ACSM?s Advanced Exercise Physiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Maryland, 2006.


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