Link between cytokines level and disease | Homework Help

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-Inflammatory markers

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Inflammatory markers can be used  to detect  the inflammation and as indicator for disease. Inflammatory markers include : C reactive protein (CRP), Cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL1,VEGF,IFN,TNF,MCP1,EGF), Adhesion Molecules (ICAM,VCAM,E-Selectin, L-Selectin, P-Selectin (Watson et al, 2012; Cesari et al,2003; Libby et al., 2014; Bautista et al., 2005 ). 

-The important of cytokines to be in normal range level 

Cytokines are a group of signalling molecules involved in communication between immune cells (Hamblin, 1993). Editing need please.

-The important of cytokines in health 

Cytokines play important roles not in tissue homeostasis and  the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. Cytokines play a roles in the maintenance tissue homeostasis process, which requires a delicate balance between anabolic and catabolic activities, such as growth factors. They play important roles in modulating the proliferation of cells. However, excessive production of cytokines in inflamed periodontal tissues is responsible for the progress of periodontitis and periodontal tissue destruction. Particularly, inflammatory cytokines-such as IL-la, 1L-1?, IL-6, and IL-8-are present in the diseased periodontal tissues, and their unrestricted production seems to play a role in chronic leukocyte recruitment and tissue destruction. Detecting and monitoring the cytokine level may allow us to diagnose the disease  such as diabetes and obesity (Okada,1998). 

-The link between cytokines level and disease

– Cytokine in Diabetes 

Increasing the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 are associated with type 2 diabetes (Dandona et al,.2004). Editing need please.

– Cytokines in Obesity

Increasing the concentrations of TNF-? and IL-6 are associated with obesity (Dandona et al,.2004).Editing need please.

– Cytokines in Cardiovascular disease

Increase the plasma concentration of CRP and IL-6 is increasedthe risk of atherosclerotic complications and myocardial infarction (Dandona et al,.2004).Editing need please.

-The health benefit of plant polyphenols

Polyphenol compounds have one or more hydroxyle group attached directly to an aromatic ring and their structures may range from simple phenolic molecules to high molecules mass complexes (Balasundram et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds are present in all plant and consume in the diet. They play a biological activity which may be benefit to human health such as anti-inflammatory effects (Miles et al., 2005).

– The impact of plant polyphenols on cytokines 

Polyphenols such as Epicatechingallate, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate decreased the production of cytokines such as interleukin1? (IL1?) and enhanced the production of interleukin 10 (IL10). Polyphenoles (flavonoids) modulated immune functions through modified the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), antibody production, natural killer cell activity, lysosome release by neutrophils, neutrophil (Crouvezier et al., 2001). Editing need please.

– Effect of plant polyphenols on obesity 

long-term of consumption green tea polyphenols (catechins,EGCG) may decrease the incidence of obesity (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.

– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on obesity 

The polyphenols(catechins,EGCG) are known to be capable of inhibiting catechol-o-methyl-transferase, which increased with obesity(Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.

– Effect of plant polyphenols on cardiovascular disease

The dietary green tea and polyphenol components can play a protective role in the development of CVD (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.

– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on cardiovascular disease

Tea polyphenols intake preserves and improves arterial compliance and endothelial function(Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.

– Effect of plant polyphenols on glucose level

Tea polyphenols (catechins), especially EGCG appear to haveanti- diabetic effects (Kao et al., 2006). Editing need please.

– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on glucose level

The mechanisms may be related to certain pathways, such as through the modulationscarbohydrate metabolism and the redox status (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.

– Effect plant polyphenols on inflammatorymarkers (cytokines)

Cinnamon leaves polyphenols extract (at a dose of 60 lg/ml ) inhibitory effects of cytokines in particular  IL-1? and IL-6 productions in Lipopolysaccharide(LPS )stimulated macrophages. Essential oil of cinnamon (C.osmophloeumtwigs) has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells (Yu-Tang et al., 2008).Cinnamon polyphenols reduce the expression of VCAM, which increased in diabetic rate. Also, cinnamon polyphenols reduce the elevated of Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP1), whichincreased with AGE in diabetic rats (Muthenna, et al, 2014).Editing need please.

– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on inflammation

Trans-cinnamaldehyde , which is one of cinnamon compound , mightinhibition of NO generation in LPS-stimulated RAW  264.7 cells. Also, there is no significant cytotoxic effects on cells treated with trans-cinnamaldehyde at concentrationsup to 200 lM.Thus,cinnamaldehyde might work as antioxidant which reduces the inflammation(Yu-Tang et al., 2008).Editing need please.

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