Liberty and Justice Assignment | Essay Help Services
This is a rewrite. I have pasted the comments from my professor so you can know what exactly is wrong with the paper. I got 73/100 I also pastes the rubric. PLEASE pay close attention. “In terms of content, this essay presents some good historical information, but it feels like it becomes more vague when it talks about the current day, and most distressingly you make a lot of claims that don’t have any source work behind them. For example, you say that police brutality is more severe for blacks than whites. But you don’t have a source that shows this. That’s a very powerful claim, and the reality is that a lot of people dispute it. For example, many people say that crimes committed by blacks tend to be more violent, so police tend to require more force in order to stop those crimes. Other people say that it’s true that there are more police brutality cases against blacks, but this is because more blacks resist arrest, so if you were to compare similar numbers of black and white crime, you’d find similarities. You may agree or disagree, but the point is, this is an argument and we need to figure out what’s right and what’s wrong. That’s the point of a research paper like this. My biggest concern with this topic is that you don’t seem to have identified the key issues, as the primary objectives for the assignment indicated that you should do. You identify a lot of issues, but there’s no sense of priority. There’s no sense of what’s most pressing or important to focus on. This is concerning because you clearly need to focus in for the next essay. You’ve identified issues of policy brutality, and generational poverty (when children born into poverty continue in poverty), etc. So, what are you going to argue about specifically in the next essay? Trying to do it all is too much. You’ll write too superficially to make a complex and satisfying argument. Remember that in academic writing, one complex and well-researched argument about a limited topic is better than trying to take on too big of an issue and not doing it justice. Narrow down to just one aspect of this problem for the next essay.” Primary goals Establish your knowledge about your problem In breadth and depth Explain the cause or historical origin of the problem/controversy Any solutions that have been historically tried (and failed) Demonstrate the ability to find research In a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives Synthesize information from multiple sources into a coherent context Identify the keystone issues needed to solve this issue The “dealbreaker” elements Do not attempt to solve the problem/controversy You will do this in the next essay In this essay, you will provide a summary of the research that has already been done about your topic. Your goal is to provide a comprehensive summary of why this issue exists. Your essay should explain what other people have discovered about this topic already, and how they did that work (i.e., the methods they used for their research). This essay should show that you are highly knowledgeable about this topic, and show that you have explored different perspectives in a way that has let you understand this topic. Try to avoid summarizing each source individually. Instead, identify patterns or conclusions found in your reading. If you have found different groups that argue against each other, or historical changes in the way people have viewed sub-issues related to your topic, you might use that as a way to organize your writing. You should conclude this essay by identifying the key issues that need to be overcome in order to bring this situation to a satisfactory resolution. That is to say, are there laws that need to be repealed or created? Do stakeholders need to be convinced, who have historically not been easy to sway? Time estimate: 10 hours to rough draft, 15 hours total Length guideline: 1000 words minimum 2.0 Requirements: Use the style system most appropriate for the subject you are researching (APA or MLA) Use at least 5 sources At least 1 of these sources must be academic/scholarly Identify a problem or issue of controversy that you can write about in the next essay Establish that you have basic knowledge about this topic in a few aspects What the problem is How big the problem is 3.0 Requirements: Explain the historical origin of this problem What caused the problem? What has already been tried to solve the problem? Use at least 6 sources At least 3 of these sources must be academic/scholarly Sources must represent multiple perspectives Establish that you have basic knowledge about this topic in many aspects 4.0 Requirements: Use at least 8 sources (you may use more) At least 3 sources must be academic/scholarly At least 1 source must be designed for a popular audience At least 1 source must show the perspective of a traditionally under-represented group Establish detailed knowledge of this topic in at least one aspect Identify the “keystone” issues that would need to be solved But do not solve them (this will happen in the next essay) Explain why prior attempts to solve this problem were unsuccessful Tips and Things to Consider: Include an author’s note for the rough draft that explains what feedback you want Look for a creative problem to address. A well-known problem that has been around for a long time is probably going to be very difficult to solve, so it may raise the level of difficulty for the next essay Search for recent sources. If your sources are too old, you may Brainstorm a few problems or issues you could write about. The first one you think of is usually not very creative High Pass (100%) Low Pass (80%) Needs Work (60%) Thesis Strength (25 pts) Problem is well defined and well-articulated; Essay identifies an important/significant problem associated with the topic; Essay acknowledges multiple perspectives; Problem is creative and looks at topic in new ways Problem is vague or not well articulated; Problem identified has only minor significance or importance; Essay does not present all relevant perspectives; Problem is commonplace Essay misunderstands the topic in a serious way; Problem has little/no significance or importance Evidence Support (25 pts) Essay supports identification of the problem with well-founded evidence; Essay supports thesis with multiple kinds of evidence Insufficient evidence is provided to prove all parts of the thesis; Evidence presented does not directly support the thesis Important parts of the thesis are not supported by evidence; Evidence providing counter-arguments is ignored or dismissed Source Integration (10 pts) Essay integrates sources whenever it would strengthen the argument; Method of integration is appropriate to the information Essay misses opportunities to add evidence; Method of source integration often does not match the kind of information or the level of detail given Key parts of essay do not include sources; Source integration is awkward and jarring to read Information Competence (15 pts) Variety of sources chosen appropriately; Research was conducted through multiple research or information gathering methods Sources lean too heavily on one type; inappropriate sources are occasionally chosen; Important sources of information are not investigated Sources chosen miss an important method of research; Sources are only chosen through a single method of research Style Formatting (10 pts) Rules of citation formatting are consistently applied correctly; Essay has minimal mechanical errors Rules of citation are mis-applied or have minor patterns of error; Essay has occasional mechanical errors Essay has frequent mechanical errors that detract from the reading experience or affect understanding Abstract N/A N/A N/A Analysis of Readings (15 pts) Readings are well-understood; Use of readings indicates good evaluation of source appropriateness and credibility Use of sources indicates that sources were generally understood, but details were not understood Use of sources indicates that sources were fundamentally misunderstood or taken out of context Rubric Research Essay Rubric Research Essay Rubric Criteria Ratings Pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThesis Strength 25.0 pts High Pass Problem is well-defined and well-articulated. Essay identifies a significant problem. Problem is creative. 20.0 pts High Pass Problem is vague or not well articulated. Problem is minor or not urgent. Problem is commonplace and/or well-known. 15.0 pts Needs Work Essay does not identify a problem, or problem has little/no significance. 25.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEvidence, Support, and Organization 25.0 pts High Pass Essay supports identification of problem with well-founded evidence and reasoning. Essay supports with multiple kinds of evidence and multiple sources. 20.0 pts Low Pass Insufficient evidence or reasoning to support all parts of the thesis. Evidence does not directly support the thesis. Order of information is not optimally effective. 15.0 pts Needs Work Important parts of the thesis are not supported by evidence. Evidence that contradicts thesis is ignored or dismissed. Order of information is confusing. 25.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSource Integration 10.0 pts High Pass Essay integrates sources whenever it would strengthen the argument. Method of integration is appropriate to the information. 8.0 pts Low Pass Essay misses opportunities to add evidence. Method of source integration often does not match the kind of information or the level of detail. 6.0 pts Needs Work Key parts of essay do not include sources. Source integration is awkward or relies almost exclusively on one type of integration. 10.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInformation Competence 15.0 pts High Pass Variety of sources chosen appropriately. Research was conducted through multiple information gathering methods. 12.0 pts Low Pass Sources lean too heavily on one type or omit an important category. Inappropriate sources occasionally chosen. Important sources of information are not included. 9.0 pts Needs Work Sources chosen miss an important method of research. Sources are chosen through a single method of research. 15.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFormatting and Grammar 10.0 pts High Pass Rules of formatting are consistently and correctly applied. Essay has minimal mechanical errors. 8.0 pts Low Pass Rules of citation have minor patterns of error. Essay has occasional mechanical errors. 6.0 pts Needs Work Essay has frequent errors of formatting or mechanics that detract from the reading experience or affect understanding. 10.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis of Readings 15.0 pts High Pass Readings are well-understood. Use of readings indicates good evaluation of source appropriateness and credibility. 12.0 pts Low Pass Use of sources indicates that sources were generally understood, but details were not understood. 9.0 pts Needs Work Use of sources indicates that sources were fundamentally misunderstood or taken out of context. 15.0 pts Total Points: 100.0
Liberty And Justice For All
Liberty and justice are a matter of concern in America since time immemorial. In the 19th century, many laws were under implementation to discriminate blacks and protect whites. They included the Jim Craw applied in the South that segregated the African Americans in terms of property ownership, securing jobs and in the transport sector. In travelling vehicles, classification of seats done in terms of race, blacks and whites. Whites could not miss a place in a car if an African American had one. A black person could not own a piece of land that is bigger than what a white-owned. It resulted in a massive migration of blacks to the North, which was more liberal. Over the years, we have experienced the establishment of many laws to ensure equity among people of different ethnicities. President John Kennedy, in 1964, signed an act of civil rights to end segregation of the public based on race and ethnicity in terms of nationality of origin (Kennedy, ‘63). Despite these laws, racial discrimination is still a matter of hindering justice and liberty.
The Jim Crow laws enforced racial segregation of people in America. According to Melvin Urofsky, the rules implemented were for the South between 1877 and 1950s against the blacks (Urofsky, 2). They designated the position that African Americans should occupy in the society, what they should own and the kind of life they should live. They were not to live a better life by all means compared to that of the whites. The laws are among the causes of social injustice and liberty among American citizens. The segregation faced abolition in the law, but still practiced in a society in different ways. The neighborhood dominated by whites has better learning institutions compared to the ones in the blacks’ regions.
In the army during the World Wars, the African Americans were segregated. The African Americans were unwilling to join the military for this reason despite their desire to protect their country. Black troops from the North who went to train in the South were violently attacked by the citizens who were majorly whites—Philip Randolph, who was the labor leader imperiled of a demonstration concerning discrimination in the defense forces. The calls for liberty and justice bred to the “New Deal” which granted blacks rights in terms of employment and curbing the segregation in the army (Diamond, 42). It turned out ineffective in terms of safeguarding the liberty and justice among the blacks. It was legally documented but literary unpracticed by the citizens.
To people who are of color, there are structural barriers when they want to secure good houses, quality education, and proper healthcare as well as excellent employment. JH Braddock and JM McPartland analyze how segregation of blacks, especially in employment opportunities (Braddock, and McPartland, 25). The black people cannot quickly secure a decent job, just like the whites. They face marginalization majority of them living in houses under poor conditions. Security provision is inequitable, and hence there are many criminal cases in the neighborhoods dominated by the African Americans. The government covers this up by saying that the blacks are troublesome and they like engaging in illegal activities.
In recent years, the American president implemented new laws concerning immigration to the US. The legislation seemed to sideline people of specific origins as it limited their immigration. The president proposed on the building of a wall across the US border with Mexico to control Mexican immigration. Among the nine acts signed by the president, some seemed to disadvantage Muslim immigrants as well as refugees. Their mobility is limited compared to other nationals. According to the laws as observed by Jessica Bolter and her group of scholars, the police should arrest unregistered immigrants and have they detained (Pierce et al., 12). The regulations could undermine liberty, especially to the Muslims in the country as it is like a crackdown for the people of the religion. For justice to everyone, the laws should show equity to each citizen.
People of color still experience systematic inequalities in the country. In some instances, black people get brutal handling by the police. A white is advantaged when it comes on the way the police handle the citizens. For example, a black once arrested in an attempt to request the police to stop brutality against a person with allegations of counteracting the course of law enforcement. It is not always the case when the victim is white. The number of police officers deployed in the white neighborhoods is higher than that in the black community (Kuebler, 680). The aspects bar the course of justice as well as liberty for all. There is no liberation of African Americans despite the constitutional documentation on equity.
Due to persistent inequity in employment opportunities among races and gender in the US, there is increased economic inequality. The economic disparity has resulted in a lack of equity in matters of justice and liberty. Majority of the whites, liberated from poverty, look down on the blacks who are still living in poverty. Few black people are educated to earn prominent positions such as lawyers compared to the whites because of the traditional laws that barred them from pursuing excellent courses. According to Casey Mulligan, parents determine the economic status of their children (Mulligan, 26). It finds most of the white descendants in a better position compared to the blacks. As a result, there is an automatic inequality between the two ethnic groups. The disparity has led to discrimination application of justice as it is relatively expensive to the impoverished blacks to hire lawyers in their cases. In this way, it is challenging to achieve liberty for the citizens.
In conclusion, resolutions implementation process needs to take a course to ensure the achievement of justice and liberty for every citizen. The legal authority should ensure the success of equity in terms of resource allocation. Economically unprivileged localities should benefit more from the national cake because they have relatively more sectors to improve compared to other places. Social amenities and infrastructure need improvement in the areas where they are underdeveloped, especially in black neighborhoods, to ensure equity accessibility. Scholarship allocations should be awarded to the needy students regardless of color so that all the students have equal access to education. Non-governmental and independent organizations that champion for the rights of the minorities and social injustices need room to rise and actively undertake their duties. Police brutality against blacks considered a severe offence and any police officer engaging in the vice should face the painful wrath of the law. The law needs an amendment that a considerable percentage of the jobs and tenders in the country set aside for the minorities.
Kennedy, John F. “Radio and television report to the American people on civil rights.” June 11 (1963): 1963.
Urofsky, Melvin I. “Jim Crow Law | History, Facts, & Examples”. Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law. Accessed 21 Apr 2020.
Edwards, Frances L., and Grayson Bennett Thomson. “The Legal Creation of Raced Space: The Subtle and Ongoing Discrimination Created through Jim Crow Laws.” Berkeley J. Afr.-Am. L. & Pol’y 12 (2010): 145.
Diamond, Andrew. “Cutting Through The Fog Of War: World War II And The Fracturing Of The New Deal Order In The Urban North”. Études Anglaises, vol 67, no. 1, 2014, p. 96. CAIRN, doi:10.3917/etan.671.0096. Accessed 21 Apr 2020.
Braddock, Jomills Henry, and James M. McPartland. “How Minorities Continue To Be Excluded From Equal Employment Opportunities: Research On Labor Market And Institutional Barriers”. Journal Of Social Issues, vol 43, no. 1, 1987, pp. 5-39. Wiley, doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1987.tb02329.x.
Pierce, Sarah et al. US Immigration Policy Under Trump: Deep Changes And Lasting Impacts. 9th ed., Migration Policy Institute, 2018, p. 29. Kuebler, Meghan. “Closing The Wealth Gap: A Review Of Racial And Ethnic Inequalities In