Kolhberg’s Principles Of Moral Development Economics Discussion Help I updated my requirements about my two discussion. No.1 need to read the two pictures

Kolhberg’s Principles Of Moral Development Economics Discussion Help I updated my requirements about my two discussion. No.1 need to read the two pictures and requirement, No.1 need to write about 500 words.No.2 just write your idea what you want which follow the requirements. Simple discussions. No. 1
Our Weiss textbook in Chapter 2 offers a brief summary of Kohlberg’s
three levels (six stages) of moral development. You may recollect these from
your undergraduate psychology courses. The central point for business is that
Kohlberg’s work offers a way to observe behavior (level of moral maturity) in our
world of business transactions.
Recall that developmental theorists equate
growth to stages in life and that this movement is not prescribed (having a set
timeline) but that movement from one stage to another is sequential (one must
travel through stage A to reach stage B and so on).
According to Kohlberg, few of us reach Level 3, Stage 6 (acting right according to
universal principles of justice and rights).
Question 1 – Was Kohlberg right?
Question 2 – Do you agree with his stages of moral development?
Question 3 – If few of us can (will) reach Level 3, Stage 6, why is this so?
Remember that there are is no right answer a DT. This is your opportunity to
contribute to the collective knowledge of the class, just as you would if we were in
a classroom. Your thoughts matter.
No. 2
Proposed research topic & rough outline
Use this discussion forum to post your proposed research topic and rough outline
and to get and give feedback to and from your classmates. Remember that this is
a proposed research topic; you may change your mind later but I want you to
begin parsing options and sketching out your research.
When you read the proposed topics and rough outlines, be candid in your
feedback; something more useful than “good topic”, “I look forward to reading
your paper”, or whatever. Help your classmates avoid pitfalls that you see in their
selection of a topic, gaps in their rough outlines, etc.
omplex moral dilemmas. However, thoughtful
and resourceful business ethics educators can facilitate the development of
awareness of what is ethical, help individuals and groups realize that their
ethical tolerance and decision-making styles decrease unethical blind
and enhance discussion of moral problems openly in the workplace.
Finally, a useful framework for evaluating ethics training is Lawrence
Kohlberg’s study41 of the stages of moral development, as well as studies on
the relevance of Kohlberg’s study for managers and professionals. 42
Stages of Moral Development
Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development (which encompass six stages)
offer a guide for observing a person’s level of moral maturity, especially as
he or she engages in different organizational transactions. Whether, and to
what extent, ethical education and training contribute to moral develop-
ment in later years is not known. Most individuals in Kohlberg’s 20-year
study (limited to males) reached the fourth and fifth stages by adulthood.
Only a few attained the sixth stage. Still, this framework is used in ethics
classrooms and training centers around the globe.
Level 1: Preconventional Level (Self-Orientation)
. Stage 1: Punishment avoidance: avoiding punishment by not breaking
rules. The person has little awareness of others’ needs.
• Stage 2: Reward seeking: acting to receive rewards for oneself. The person
has awareness of others’ needs but not of right and wrong as abstract
Level 2: Conventional Level (Others Orientation)
• Stage 3: Good person: acting “right” to be a “good person” and to be ac-
cepted by family and friends, not to fulfill any moral ideal.
• Stage 4: Law and order: acting “right” to comply with law and order and
norms in societal institutions.
Level 3: Postconventional, Autonomous, or Principles Level (Universal, Hu-
mankind Orientation)
• Stage 5: Social contract: acting “right” to reach consensus by due process
and agreement. The person is aware of relativity of values and tolerates
differing views.
• Stage 6: Universal ethical principles: acting “right” according to univer-
sal, abstract principles of justice and rights. The person reasons and uses
conscience and moral rules to guide actions.
Kohlberg’s Study and Business Ethics
One study of 219 corporate managers working in different companies
found that managers typically reason at moral stage 3 or 4, which, the
author noted, is a similar to most adults in the Western, urban societies
or other business managers.
943 Managers in large- to medium-sized firms
reasoned at lower moral stages than managers who were self-employed or
who worked at small firms. Reasons offered for this difference in moral
reasoning include that larger firms have more complex bureaucracies
and layers of structure, more standard policies and procedures, and exert
more rule-based control over employees. Employees tend to get isolated
from other parts of the organization and feel less involved in the central
decision-making process.
On the other hand, self-employed professionals and managers in smaller
firms tend to interact with people throughout the firm and with external
stakeholders. Involvement with and vulnerability to other stakeholders may
cause these managers to adhere to social laws more closely and to reason at
stage 4.
This study also found that managers reasoned at a higher level when
responding to a moral dilemma in which the main character was not a
corporate employee. It could be that managers reason at a higher level
when moral problems are not associated with the corporation. The
author suggested that the influence of the corporation tends to restrict
the manager to lower moral reasoning stages. Or it could be that the nature
of the moral dilemma may affect the way managers reason (e.g., some
dilemmas may be appropriately addressed with stage 3 or 4 reasoning,
other dilemmas may require stage 5 logic). This study raises the question:
“How can organizations use these findings in training and managing
Another important study argued that moral decision making is “issue
dependent” and, more specifically, that “the moral intensity of the issue
itself has a significant effect on moral decision making and behavior at
all stages of the process.” In fact, the authors argue that “issues of high
moral intensity will be recognized as moral issues more frequently than
will issues of low moral intensity.”44 The study suggests that people who
do not recognize moral issues will not act morally regarding those issues.
This conclusion supports a serious need for business ethics education
and training with specific emphasis on identifying stakeholder and issues

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