Historical Timeline

Week 1 Assignment Historical Timeline

In this assignment you will demonstrate your understanding of the learning objectives: Analyze the relevant historical timeline of landmark cases that have influenced special education and the education and treatment of individuals with exceptional needs in the school setting and Identify federal legislation that guides the foundations of special education in the public schools. Additionally, completion of this assignment represents an introduction to Course Learning Outcome 1 and MASE Program Learning Outcomes 1 and 2.

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The history of special education has included a long and arduous path for parents, teachers, and children as exemplified in  Celebrating 35 Years of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Links to an external site.) but this process also has generated some very positive outcomes. Beginning in 1954 with the landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that separate is not equal and therefore educating children with special needs in isolated environments does not provide an identical education to that of their non-disabled peers (Expanding Civil Rights, n.d.). Since the passage of this groundbreaking legislation, other individuals and activist groups have followed suit, fighting for the legal rights of children with disabilities.

Instructions You will select three landmark cases to summarize and analyze using a timeline format. Although you can use any online template for this project www.capzles.com (Links to an external site.)www.tiki-toki.com/ (Links to an external site.), and http://www.timetoast.com (Links to an external site.) are recommended as being user-friendly. The use of your text and the aforementioned video are strong resources for this assignment. Upload a Word document in waypoint that includes a link to your online timeline. An important point is that you must make your website “public” in order for the instructor to access your work. Here is an example of a timeline:

· Special Education Timeline (Links to an external site.)

Timeline Content

· Identify, by name and date, at least three influential landmark cases specific to 21st century special education beginning in 1960, using www.capzles.com (Links to an external site.)www.tiki-toki.com/ (Links to an external site.), or www.timetoast.com (Links to an external site.), or an online timeline creation tool of your choice.

· Paraphrase in 2-3 sentences a description of each party’s stance for each of the three selected cases.

· Restate in your own words, a 2–3 sentence summary of the final court ruling for each of the three selected cases.

· Explain in 2-3 sentences, using your own words, how the historical legal rulings you selected have supported the needs of students with disabilities.

· Embed into your timeline a relevant link to a website or video that describes each selected case in user-friendly terms.

Written Communication

· APA Formatting: Use APA 6th edition formatting consistently throughout the timeline.

· Syntax and Mechanics: Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.

· Source Requirement: Reference the website or video selected at the conclusion of each case’s narrative.

Next Steps: Review and Submit the Assignment Review your assignment with the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) to ensure you have achieved the distinguished levels of performance for each criterion. Next, submit your document no later than Day 7.

Recommendation The MASE program provides the opportunity for you to create an online portfolio that can be used in your career development and professional practice. Throughout the program you will have various assessments that can be included in this e-portfolio and these will be finalized in the last course of the MASE program, Capstone course, ESE699. You may select this assignment and subsequent coursework to include as artifacts. Therefore, it is strongly encouraged you save your coursework on a flash-drive (e.g., a USB removable drive) or store in a cloud-based option such as Dropbox, GoogleDrive, or other similar applications.

Success Tip: Start preparing now for the Week Six Final Assignment!  The Week Six assignment involves creating a resource manual for Mr. Franklin. Preparation for this assignment must begin early to make certain you are thinking ahead and saving your work. Review the full instructions for the Week Six assignment for more information.

Week One

Introduction

Welcome to ESE601: Students With Exceptionalities in the School Setting. We are excited that you have chosen this program and look forward to your success in each class. This program has been designed around key elements in the field of special education to prepare you for your role in the education of students with disabilities. Each week before beginning your assignments and initial discussion board post, it is highly recommended that you review the Instructor Guidance, which serves to supplement the required and recommended readings, videos and multimedia web pages for each week of material. The Instructor Guidance begins with a theoretical foundation of the weekly learning outcomes, progresses to authentic examples, and then concludes with guidance for the discussion board prompt and completing the weekly assignment. The Instructor Guidance can be used to support your discussion posts, responses, and other required assignments.

Figure 1. A child’s handprint next to Braille. Reprinted from Morguefile, by DuBoix, 2012, http://mrg.bz/w1yCaK (Links to an external site.) . Copyright 2006 by Morguefile.

The entire Master of Arts, Special Education (MASE) program, beginning with this course is focused on the following assumptions:

1. all children can learn;

2. children have diverse learning styles;

3. and the teacher’s belief in each child’s abilities supports the child’s success.

Therefore, it is imperative throughout each course in the MASE program you embrace the premise that, regardless of ability level, cultural background, or learning differences, in physically and emotionally safe environments, all children can learn. Take five minutes to watch Teach Special Education (Links to an external site.) to hear from parents, teachers, and students about the value of becoming a special educator. Teachers explain how students add value to their lives; parents explain how teachers add value to their children’s lives; and students explain how having adults who care make all the difference in their world.

Equal Rights

The path to equal rights for children with disabilities has been full of roadblocks as well as many successes over the years. There have been notable figures that have worked to pave the way for public education for children with disabilities. Many had disabilities themselves, which served to further change societies’ views and attitudes about public education for children with disabilities. One such early advocate, Helen Keller, who lost her vision and hearing at 19-months old due to an undiagnosed illness, earned a college diploma and became a world-renowned public speaker on behalf of others with disabilities. In spite of growing popularity, in the early 1900s women were discouraged from attending college because, as explained by Dr. Edward Clark in his book Sex and Education although “…a girl could study and learn, but she could not do all this and retain uninjured health, and a future secure from neuralgia, uterine disease, hysteria, and other derangements of the nervous system” (as cited in Early College Women, 2010, para. 5). In 1904, Helen Keller graduated college being blind and deaf, but she also helped found the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), and Helen Keller International while also serving as an outspoken voice with the American Federation for the Blind (Helen Keller, 2015). Following closely in her footsteps, Dr. Jacob Bolotin was the first blind doctor to graduate from college, completing his medical degree at 24 years old from Chicago College of Medicine. Using his keen sense of hearing, he quickly became a world renowned heart and lung specialist (Kendrick, n.d.). These accomplishments, along with many others, did not go unnoticed, as future presidents acknowledged the achievements from the past and set the foundation for future endeavors. In 1930, Herbert Hoover, along with 3,500 other participants, created the Children’s Charter, which focused on the health, safety and education for all children, inclusively. The president declared that each citizen has a responsibility and must be held accountable to improve the lives of all children “regardless of race, or color, or situation, wherever he may live under the protection of the American flag” (as cited in The Children’s Charter, 2015, XIX). Having a personal connection to those with disabilities, President Kennedy’s legacy included his Special Message to the Congress on Education. In these series of speeches, the president addresses topics such as education reform, funding for children with special needs and teacher salary.

The education of our people is a national investment. It yields tangible returns in economic growth, an improved citizenry and higher standards of living. But even more importantly, free men and women value education as a personal experience and opportunity-as a basic benefit of a free and democratic civilization. It is our responsibility to do whatever needs to be done to make this opportunity available to all and to make it of the highest possible quality. (John F. Kennedy, 2015, para. 40)

As a result of years of advocacy, the federal law that guides the field of special education today, known as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has six major principles (IDEA/IDEIA: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 2008). Globally, these include the following:

· Zero Reject

· Non-discriminatory Education

· Appropriate Education

· Least Restrictive Environment

· Procedural Due Process

· Parental and Student Participation

These six principles drive our work in the field and when followed consistently our work can lead to success for students with identified disabilities.

In Practice

Imagine that you are walking into your very first classroom as a special education teacher. You will be working closely with Mr. Franklin, the general educator who has been in the education field for over ten years. In your co-teaching environment, Mr. Franklin and you will instruct the entire class, which is comprised of 28 students in the classroom, with seven students identified as having specialized academic and behavioral needs. Some of these students may be falling behind in their academic progress. Others may not appear engaged in the classwork or homework activities. Yet others may appear to have a negative attitude. As co-teachers, you are both responsible for collaboratively designing and delivering instruction to effectively meet each student’s needs. Before the school year officially begins, you meet with Mr. Franklin to discuss each of your roles within the co-teaching environment. It was discussed that Mr. Franklin will be the expert of the instructional content and your role as the specialist who will help students access the information at their own levels. During this meeting, he states he has not co-taught before so you show him a video, Co-Teaching, Part 1 (Links to an external site.), which introduces this style of teaching, its benefits, and basic logistics. After sharing the video, Mr. Franklin is happy to announce that although some questions remain, he has a much better understanding of what is expected.

Week One Discussion Guidance

There are many benefits to learning online, including working at your own pace, creating your own schedule, and learning from peers who are not bound to physical proximity, as is the case with traditional classrooms. The activities conducted within the discussion board are your opportunity to build a community of learners across the country and, in some cases, worldwide. Online discussions are your opportunity to apply the learning as it takes the place of direct instruction or “lecture” in a traditional brick-and-mortar, higher-education setting. We begin this course by introducing ourselves in the “Post Your Introduction” discussion. Please be sure to review the six weekly homepages of the course—does anything stand out? Is there anything missing you are hoping to learn? In your initial post, take some time to share your thoughts with your instructor and peers about the information and assessments in the course including consideration of the questions above. Your instructor encourages you to include a photo of yourself as part of your post as well, connecting a face with a name, making your post more personable. In the first content related discussion, “Explaining it Clearly,” you will help Mr. Franklin understand terms and concepts related to special education services to help create an inclusive atmosphere where both teachers are contributing to the entire classroom of students. By guiding the general educator through the most relevant information related to the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), you are you are building capacity between the shared expertise that both professionals bring to the classroom. Please review the discussion board rubric prior to your initial post to ensure you are fully meeting each of the set criteria to earn full credit. Your initial post should include relevant professional, personal, or other real-world experiences in a manner that is rich in thought and provides valuable insight into the topic. Additionally, all elements of the discussion board prompt should be thoroughly addressed with strong and precise connections to previous and/or current course content or to real-life situations. When substantively replying to your peers’ posts, be sure to provide a thorough and constructive analysis relating the response to relevant course concepts that incorporates pertinent follow-up thoughts or questions about the topic and demonstrates respect for the diverse opinions of fellow learners.

Week One Assignment Guidance

There is a rich history of landmark court cases that have transformed special education from a privilege to a right. Each ruling paved the way for equal rights for students with disabilities. The Supreme Court’s decree that “separate is not equal” in the 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education was one of the most notable rulings in setting the foundation for equality in education. Education-based legislation regarding children with disabilities began in the early 1970’s with Public Law 94-142 also known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). For your first assignment, you will create a timeline of pioneering court cases that contributed to the 21st-century special education programming as we know it today. Make sure to use the Grading Rubric as a self-checklist before submitting the final copy of your assignment to confirm you have met or exceeded each required expectation. The highest level of achievement on the rubric is distinguished, which is only earned through exceeding posted expectations at the proficiency level. Please remember you are in a masters-level program. Therefore, your writing, research, and content are held to graduate-level expectations.

ePortfolio Purpose and Process

In each course within the MASE program, you will save each written assignment in an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). This ePortfolio will serve as a collection of evidence to support the development and mastery of competencies as you progress through this program. This electronic portfolio will be particularly important for you to showcase your learning while applying the artifacts from your degree program to potential future interviews and career advancement opportunities. Your ePortfolio is as unique as you are and will be part of the culminating experience in the Capstone course in the MASE program, ESE699. The Purpose of an ePortfolio The most important purpose of your ePortfolio is to present yourself as a developing, reflective practitioner. Several related goals include:

· To demonstrate individual competencies and mastery of the learning outcomes associated with individual courses as well as the entire degree program;

· To exhibit work samples which validate skill sets being sought by potential employers;

· To present work samples which demonstrate competencies required for professional memberships or organizations; and

· To reflect on the process of developing and refining work products in order to continually improve your craft as an educational professional.

Selecting your ePortfolio Platform The MASE program emphasizes the use of Pathbrite (https://pathbrite.com/signup) as your selected ePortfolio platform. Pathbrite currently offers a free version of this application, which is robust and user friendly. Additionally, consider the following:

· The variety of different media that the selected platform can support;

· How easy it is to rearrange content if you later want to adjust the structure of the layout of your ePortfolio;

· The ability to grant others access to view your work;

· The availability of help and technical support;

· The capacity based on current and future needs;

· Cost

Pathbrite has the ability to address each of these points and is available free!

References

Biography.com Editors. (2017). Helen Keller: Biography.com (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.biography.com/people/helen-keller-9361967

DuBoix. (2012). FDR_Meml.jpg (Links to an external site.) [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://mrg.bz/w1yCaK

IDEA/IDEIA: Individuals with disabilities education act (Links to an external site.). (2008). Retrieved from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/disabilities/IDEA.html

Maryland Learning Links Info. (2011, September 21). Co-Teaching part 1 (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/uLvvLc_kZys

Kendrick, R. (n.d.). The blind doctor: The Jacob Bolotin story (Links to an external site.) [Book review]. Retrieved from https://nfb.org/images/nfb/publications/bm/bm08/bm0801/bm080105.htm

Scott, L. A., Gentry, R., & Phillips, M. (2014). Making preservice teachers better: Examining the impact of a practicum in a teacher preparation program (Links to an external site.). Educational Research and Reviews, 9(10), 294-301. doi:10.5897/ERR2014.1748

teach.org. (2011, October 26). Teach special education  (Links to an external site.)[Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/2XsaK3pWyII

The children’s charter [government document] (Links to an external site.). (n.d.) Retrieved from http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/case-studies/124.

Required Resources

Text

Henley, M., Ramsey, R. S., & Algozzine, R. (2009). Characteristics of and strategies for teaching students with mild disabilities . Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson

· Chapter 1: Foundations of Special Education for Students with Mild Disabilties

Multimedia

Cheatham, A. (2011, February 1). Significant Court Cases in Special Education (Links to an external site.) [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/AngieCheatham/court-cases-6780307

· This presentation provides a brief overview of landmark cases that contributed to equality in education for students with disabilities. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy

Harkins, J. (2017). ESE601 week one historical timeline (Links to an external site.) . [Timeline]. Retrieved from https://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/872258/ESE-601-Week-1-Historical-Timeline/

· The following link is a sample timeline created as a model for this week’s assignment. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy

U.S. Department of Education. (2010, November 22). Celebrating 35 Years of IDEA (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUn6luZQaXE

· The U.S. Department of Education created this brief video to document the journey of students with disabilities prior to the passage of IDEA. Accessibility Statement (Links to an external site.) Privacy Policy  (Links to an external site.)

 

Recommended Resources

Article

PBS. (2006). Landmark cases: Brown v. Board of Education (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

· One of the most well-known landmark cases that initiated a change to equality in education is Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, which is summarized in user-friendly terms created by PBS (Public Broadcasting System) Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy  (Links to an external site.)

Websites

Beautiful web-based timeline software (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tiki-toki.com/

Capzles Social Storytelling, Online Timeline Maker, Share Photos, Videos, Text, Music and Documents Easily (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.capzles.com

Timetoast (Links to an external site.). (http://www.timetoast.com)

· Suggested online tool to create this week’s historical timeline assignment.

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