Green Roofing Assignment | Online Assignment

Construction Management i have written 5000 words already i just need 4000 more words added to it. including questions i should ask builders.

Introduction                                                                                                                                      4

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Research Aim and Objectives                                                                                                          4

Research Context                                                                                                                             4

Background of the Research                                                                                                            5

Issue Associated with the Research                                                                                                 6

Rationale of the Research                                                                                                                 6

Scope of the Research                                                                                                                      6

Planning Considerations for Green Roof                                                                                         7

Roof Accessibility                                                                                                                            7

Market Knowledge and Product Warranties                                                                                    8

Structure and Spatial Limitation of the Green Roof                                                                        8

Rainwater Collection                                                                                                                        9

Presence of Solar Panels                                                                                                                   9

Key Technical Requirements for Design of Green Roof                                                               10

Green Roofs as An Ecological and Sustainable Alternative for Building Roofs                           10

Green Roof as A Sustainable Solution for Cities                                                                           11

Green Roofs as A Sustainable Alternative to Add Beauty to Homes                                           12

Potential Benefits of the Research                                                                                                 13

Decreases pollution                                                                                                                         13

Contributes to temperature drop                                                                                                    13

Reduces potential flooding                                                                                                            13

Improves the aesthetics of the property                                                                                         13

Thermal and acoustic insulation                                                                                                     13

Urban Heat Island Effect                                                                                                               14

Removal of Air Particulates                                                                                                           14

Necessity of Shades and production of Oxygen                                                                            14

Methodology                                                                                                                                  14

Collection of Data                                                                                                                          14

Data Analysis                                                                                                                                 15

Ethics                                                                                                                                              15

Gantt Chart                                                                                                                                     16

References                                                                                                                                      17

 

 Table of Contents

 

 

 

Sustainability in Green Roof

 

Introduction

The green roof is, perhaps just below the photovoltaic plates, the most talked about building detail in the sustainability world. Its advantages are widely discussed, such as helping to avoid heat islands, greenhouse gas emissions and contain floods (Stovin, Vesuviano,  and De-Ville, 2017). The term ‘Green Roof’ is commonly used to describe roofs covered with vegetation. However, the system is much wider: roofs with solar panels, white with high emissivity and reflectivity or even long shingle roofs can be considered green roofs.

 

Research Aim and Objectives

Aims

To determine the strengths and weakness of different green roof to sustainability.

Objectives

To determine the strengths of green roof to sustainability

To determine the weaknesses of green roof to sustainability

To review the modern technology pertaining to the installation of green roof to sustainability.

To find the strategies through which effective and sustainable green roof can be installed.

 

Research Context

The context of this research is to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of green roof to sustainability. Hence, green roof or a live roof can be defined as the top of a structure that is mostly or completely secured with plants. It could also incorporate layers, for example, root obstruction and filtration frames and water systems (Goussous, J., Siam, H. and Alzoubi, H., 2015). The compartment is grown on rooftops, where plants are in pots, green roofs are not commonly apparent. Domestic lakes are another type of green roof that are used to treat gray water. The vegetation, the soil, the infiltration layer, the roof obstacle and the water system frame form a green roof (Korol, E. and Shushunova, N., 2016).

Wide roofs are light and thin roof structures that normally have a planting medium that is estimated to have a depth of 6 to 20 cm, while heavier and thicker green roofs are known as scaled roofs and their means of development have a thickness of 20 cm to 100 cm. Semi-scaled green roofs, as the name implies, are a mixture of the two types mentioned above. They have a medium sowing thinner than a scale roof, although thicker than a wide one, and the entire frame varies from 120 to 250 mm. A wide roof loads around 60 to 150 kg / m2, a semi-serious of 120 to 200 kg / m2 and the heaviest among the three, concentrated roof, loads greater than 180 kg / m2 and up to 500 kg / m2 (Vijayaraghavan, 2016).

Clearly, concentrated ceilings are the most expensive among the three frames, while wide ceilings have the lowest cost. Serious green roofs can drive the development of a wide range of plants, including shrubs and small trees, while wide green roofs, in general, can force a small determination of plants tolerant to the dry season with small deep-rooted frames (Stovin et al., 2017). Greens, sedums, underdeveloped herbs and herbs are basic decisions for wide roofs. Because of that, wide ceilings have few maintenance needs and do not require a water system with the exception of during a heat wave. On the other hand, concentrated green roofs need high maintenance and must be routinely flooded.

 

Background of the Research

The first known green roofs date from the 6th century BC, but more elaborate techniques were developed and implemented in the 19th century. In the 1970s college students rescued the green roof and began putting greener in Germany’s tallest buildings (Alnawas and Hemsley-Brown, 2018). As the idea brought beauty and positioned itself as an ecological solution that could involve society, green roofs began to be incorporated into architectural projects. It is a fact that construction is one of the main responsible for unreasonable actions against nature. However, it has been motivating engineers and architects to create more sustainable designs with minimal impact on the environment.

Homes and buildings are being designed to create their own solar energy, as well as reuse rainwater and use reforestation woods. But it is the implementation of the green roofs that draws the most attention, because of the possibilities of reusing a previously unused space that has a very positive impact (Alnawas and Hemsley-Brown, 2018). Most buildings are made of materials that heat up even more in hot climates. One of the benefits of green roofing is to provide about 30% more thermal comfort inside the home. This prevents them from getting too hot in the strong sun or getting too cold in colder times. The percentage is relevant, especially when it achieves significant electricity savings caused by air conditioners. The presence of green on the roofs helps to rebalance the relative humidity of the air and cause more pleasant indoor climates. Green roof deployment techniques include the reuse of plant irrigation waters and those received by rainwater (ZHENG, and ZHAO, 2018).

 

Issue Associated with the Research

Solar panels installed on green roofs can improve their efficiency by up to 16% (Shafique et al., 2019). In the equipment it was found that there are drivers that operate better in cool environments. Only careful installation is necessary as the plates need to be anchored and can pierce the membrane (Homburg, Jozić, and Kuehnl, 2017). For even greater benefits the green roof can also be combined with a rainwater harvesting system. On the other hand, very special initiatives have been emerging not only to break the stiffened aesthetics of buildings, but also to contribute to an improvement of the environment. The green roofs, increasingly present and spread throughout the cities, present a more beautiful and pleasant aesthetic. In addition, they provide more oxygen to the environment and help to drain rain, avoiding saturation of water galleries.

 

Rationale of the Research

The advantage of sustainability in green roof comes from considering the full life cycle of the strategy, as its duration is on average twice as long as the conventional option (Homburg, Jozić, and Kuehnl, 2017). Hardly a common solution will last more than 20 years without maintenance, while the green roof, while requiring specific and periodic care, can last twice as long as it protects the slab by concentrating and withstanding the differences in temperature and insolation.

Of course, measuring the energy embodied in a green roof is a giant scientific work with so many variables that it’s like searching for the ultimate feijoada recipe on Google.  This environmental cost will be reversed only after 40 years, even considering that no changes are made, only periodic maintenance. If this maintenance is well performed, it can exceed the expectation of 20 years of a waterproofed slab and then begin to bring the desired benefits.

 

Scope of the Research

There are several laws and decrees being passed in the chambers suggesting the obligatory green roofs with vegetation (Cubi et al., 2016). This proves a lack of real commitment, both in understanding the term more broadly with its various varieties (such as the blue roofs and others described above) and in not differentiating and creating a greater incentive for large urban centres where there is a wide variety of varieties. Great need for the solution (Shin, 2015). Nor does it suggest essential standards, such as the ANSI Fire Design Standard, which limits maximum areas to prevent the spread of fire in large urban centres, nor the ANSI Wind Design Standard, which suggests species use and non-use for areas subject to extreme winds. In addition, inventive devices are generally of little advantage, usually related to a slight rebate on property tax up to 50% of the value of the installation.

 

Planning Considerations for Green Roof

A series of factors must necessarily be considered in the design of a green roof, according to the National Centre of Excellence for Green Roofs of the United Kingdom, of the landscape department of the University of Sheffield Centre that deals with the development and research of green roofs and that developed a design guide in which these considerations are determined as relevant when conducting a project of green roofs (Coma et al., 2018).

 

Roof Accessibility

As with all roofs, maintenance is necessary, even if it is a simple cleaning of the surface, and therefore, what and how the access to them will be considered. So therefore, all green roofs require a certain degree of maintenance (Coma et al., 2018). A minimum maintenance is not equivalent to not performing any conservation action. It is true that extensive green roofs demand less maintenance than intensive ones, but they still have an annual requirement to clear gutters and unwanted vegetation. Therefore, it is important to include in the design easy access whatever the type of covers. For security reasons, it would be impossible to fall from any part of the roof, but if this is not possible, protection and safety protocols must be established that prevent the fall of the operators (Coma et al., 2018). Existing regulations must be followed in reference to safety and health in the construction and maintenance of roofs. It is recommended whenever there is edge protection, anchoring systems and means of personal containment so that inspections and maintenance are as safe as possible.

 

 

 

Market Knowledge and Product Warranties

Before starting with the design, it is advisable to know the existing companies in the market and the products they offer, since in many cases they will help or collaborate in the design (in some cases they may even offer to do it themselves). Prior to the selection of the company or companies that are going to deal with the construction, labour and supply of materials (Cubi et al., 2016). In some cases, it is up to 20 years, but also we must also see if they offer any type of subsequent maintenance, if they will take care of changing defective materials, or in the end if they guarantee that they can solve any problem directly related to the product that may take place in the years after the installation of the roof.

It is normal for vegetation to be expected to find a total guarantee, since being a living organism it is never known whether it will work well or not, but it can be demanded that during the first couple of years, the company that supplied the plants , replace those that have failed to take root or ensure that a specific percentage of plant cover will always be maintained (Cubi et al., 2016). It is important that we certify the implementation of a maintenance regime for the establishment of vegetation.

Therefore, already in the project phase, it is necessary to look for products that have guarantees and directly include an advisory service in the design process in which they guide about possible options, loading, drainage and insulation performance thermal (Gargari et al., 2016). It will not always be possible to have all the integrated service (although it is the most recommended) but at least the necessary consultations must be made to the suppliers to make a more successful design.

 

Structure and Spatial Limitation of the Green Roof

In many cases, especially in commercial or office buildings, on the rooftops there are several elements that limit the space that can be established as a green roof: water tanks, air conditioning systems and other equipment necessary for the operation of the building (Gargari et al., 2016). So, when making the design, these elements and their location must be taken into account along with the accessibility necessary to reach them, something that limits the availability of the planting space a little more. Although that accessibility is not always a problem, it helps the entrance of the operators who will have to do the maintenance of the vegetation of the roofs.

Despite the spatial restrictions that may appear once all the elements present in some roofs are seen, it will always be positive to install any green roof, no matter how small, since it will undoubtedly be beneficial (Law et al., 2017). As an example of a green roof of minimum size, it can be installed even at a bus stop. To avoid problems due to possible obstruction, there must be at least two different water outlets. These drainage points must be protected from vegetation by a barrier of stones or gravel to prevent the intrusion of plants into the downspouts. Green roofs can be installed with any roof slope. If it exceeds 45 degrees, the technologies used in living walls or vertical gardens must be used. As the slope of the surface increases, the design and installation become more complicated, in addition the cost also increases, as well as the access limitations (Law et al., 2017). Flat roofs (which normally have a 3º slope) up to 10º roofs, can easily be turned into green roofs with any standard commercial element, for larger slopes you have to look for other elements, such as anchors.

The structural load on the roof will depend on the type of green roof chosen. And professional advice on the load that a roof can withstand is ALWAYS necessary. Extensive roofs, especially those that are light or super-light, barely contribute an important overweight that may affect the building (Law et al., 2017). But intensive roofs and rooftop gardens weigh a lot, since apart from the plant load and the substrate they require steel or concrete elements. The additional load for the building of the installation of the new green roof has to be calculated both when the substrate is not saturated and when it is, because there is a significant variation.

 

Rainwater Collection

The amount of runoff water resulting in a green roof is a very small amount compared to that produced in a conventional roof. In any case, this water can be collected for later reuse in multiple applications (Maiolo et al., 2017). But it must be taken into account that if fertilizers are used in the maintenance of green roofs, excess water should not be stored or reused afterwards (waters with high amounts of nutrients cause eutrophication problems.

 

Presence of Solar Panels

The presence of solar panels can be perfectly combined with green roofs. In fact, the positive effect of vegetation on roofs with photovoltaic panels has been demonstrated, since they dissipate some of the heat accumulated on the roof, allowing these panels to work more efficiently (Maiolo et al., 2017). One thing to consider in the design, when selecting the vegetation, is that the area that remains under the panels, will almost always (if not always) be in the shade and that you will not receive rainwater so There will be a different microclimate.

 

Key Technical Requirements for Design of Green Roof

The type of waterproofing and its installation in the most delicate areas (perimeter zones, exits, bumps or bulges), must be partly subject to the depth of the green roof. All supports, roof perimeters, exits and protruding roof elements must be protected by a non-vegetated barrier of about 20 to 40 mm that can be made of gravel or concrete tiles. This barrier must be of the same depth of the substrate and not less than 500 mm horizontally (Perini and Rosasco, 2016). The impermeable layer should rise at least 150 mm over any other element (substrate or vegetation barrier) in the vertical part. In places where waterproofing material is used on the vertical faces of the supports and parapets, the membrane must be double or with a metal reinforcement or protection. This will ensure that no weak points appear that may be affected by ultraviolet radiation or unfavourable weather conditions in those parts that are not protected by the vegetation cover.

All sinks and downspouts from the green roofs must have easily accessible access boxes and with a lid that can be removed without problems (Perini and Rosasco, 2016). Thus, any element carried by the water can be easily removed and will simplify maintenance and inspection. It is essential that the weight of the saturated substrate of the proposed green roof be calculated and obtained by a professional (architect or structural engineer). All load values must be based on the weight of the saturated substrate plus other relevant considerations. The green roofs put a greater load on the buildings than that provided by a conventional roof. Although extensive roofs (the lightest ones) do not contribute a much greater load than that of roofs designed to prevent overheating of the building by heat stroke, they have a ballast layer (Perini and Rosasco, 2016). Green covers can be used for the same purpose, protect from excessive heat, but when replacing the ballast with the green cover, make sure that the load is the same.

 

Green Roofs as An Ecological and Sustainable Alternative for Building Roofs

In the big cities, the roofs of the buildings are usually little used places, in general, and in some cases, they are areas that can be quite uncomfortable in the hottest seasons, or when it rains heavily. Other buildings extend the last house providing its inhabitants access to the roof, a desolate place that is necessary to cover to enjoy in summer, and almost completely unusable during winter (Ragheb et al., 2016). Starting from the base that this soil must be conditioned by adding the necessary layers to create a “arable soil” (in addition to guaranteeing the essential isolation when there is a water drain), cover that surface with grass, plant shrubs, flowers and all kinds Vegetable (a full-fledged garden, why not?) is a luxury.

The cost, of course, is high. In large communities with the roof as a common area it would be more affordable than in the case of a single owner with 100 square meters of “roof terrace”, but still, it is necessary to have a return of some kind: the investment is not small, and not everyone would be content with the return in the form of an urban garden (Ragheb et al., 2016). However, in countries like the UK, there is an obligation by law so that the roofs of office buildings and commercial buildings have “green” areas, either through plants, or with solar panels. The term “green” can be confusing, but in this case, it is synonymous with “environment,” “ecological,” “sustainable.”

On the one hand, the roofs, whatever they are, are perfect places for the placement of solar panels that contribute to the energy supply of homes or offices; on the other, green areas, with suitable plants and shrubs, are a good way to take advantage of those surfaces, and can even serve to improve the office environment by serving as a ” haven of peace “. In residential buildings, things change (Rosasco and Perini, 2019). While it would be equally interesting to have these conditioned areas, either with vegetation or with solar panels, the cost involved may not be subject to consensus among the different owners. It is easier to start with office buildings.

 

Green Roof as A Sustainable Solution for Cities

Transforming the look of a building or house and even helping to leave the city with a slightly greener landscape is what green roof technology promises. Installed on roofs of homes, offices and any other type of construction, they allow the implantation of soil and vegetation in a waterproof layer (Rosasco and Perini, 2019). With the layer of vegetation on the roof, a building or a house with an eco-efficient roof reduces the energy exchange between the interior and the exterior, bringing more thermal comfort to the constructions. In addition, there is an improvement in air quality, an increase in the energy efficiency of internal equipment, such as air conditioning and an increase in the service life of the roof.

It is possible to adapt any building to a green roof. But it is essential to consult a trained professional to obtain the expected technical result. Some precautions are essential for those looking for this type of solution, as it is necessary to be careful with the waterproofing and perfect specification of all the items that make up the system (Rosasco and Perini, 2019). “Any type of vegetation can be used, as long as it is in accordance with the implanted structure and local climatic conditions. It must also be taken into account how this vegetation will be maintained and it is advisable to use native species.

Green roofs or roofs also have an effect on the surroundings and in the city, with the possibility of reducing heat islands (phenomenon in which heat bubbles form in some urban areas), filtering pollutants and heavy metals from rainwater (Shafique et al., 2018). In addition, they add value to the property, making it a good eco-efficient solution for urban centres. Although the topic has been dealt with more frequently in recent years, due to the greater concern with efficient constructions, it is not a recent technique, the practice has been used for years.

 

Green Roofs as A Sustainable Alternative to Add Beauty to Homes

Coverage to assist in the air conditioning of environments and attracts different species of birds. Having a house with a permanently air-conditioned environment, contributing to the improvement of air quality, attracting birds, in addition to giving more beauty to the property are benefits that have captivated residents of houses to install green roofs (Shafique et al., 2018). The contribution to better quality air occurs by capturing suspended particles in the environment. “With the presence of water, together with the soil and organic compounds, there is an increase in the bovinity of microorganisms, causing a reduction in temperature.

It is not new that the “stone jungles” that the great capitals of the world are transforming cause damage to nature. In order to take care of the environment, buildings in the UK will pay less taxes for having roof gardens, according to a law recently sanctioned by the local government (Shafique et al., 2018). Experts explain that in order to transform the roof into a garden, it is necessary to start with a layer of PVC, then appropriate stones, an appropriate hydraulic system, in addition to other specific materials to prevent plant roots from affecting the building’s construction. The lack of vegetation causes temperatures to rise, around 4 or 5 ° C. This overheating does not happen in areas that have a vast green area (Perini and Rosasco, 2016). In addition to the function related to the environment, roof gardens and / or roofs can be transformed into recreation areas or even vegetable gardens as It is a way to combine sustainability and utility.

As the green roof requires adequate infrastructure, it is not enough to climb on top of the house and start planting (Perini and Rosasco, 2016). The work requires the installation of a specific structure on the roof of the house:

  • If the roof is simply a slab, it must be waterproofed;
  • If it is made of ceramic tiles, it is necessary to remove them and place plywood plates that will serve as a base for the vegetation cover.

 

Potential Benefits of the Research

When it comes to green roof, the advantages are many. Among them are:

Decreases pollution

Plants are great CO2 scavengers. This feature decreases the presence of harmful pollutants that cause respiratory diseases.

Contributes to temperature drop

By capturing CO2, the green roof can minimize or eliminate heat islands. These are climatic phenomena that occur in cities with a high degree of urbanization (Cassia, Cobelli, and Ugolini, 2017). By absence or few green areas, these cities usually have higher temperatures than normal.

Reduces potential flooding

This is a great alternative because draining plants can slow water accumulation in cities that can cause flooding.

Improves the aesthetics of the property

A vegetation on the roof of your venture beautifies the view of buildings, as it removes that excess concrete from cities that cause eye strain.

Thermal and acoustic insulation

It is a great thermoacoustic solution. It can act as an insulator, avoiding heat and cold transfer inside the building, reducing expenses with air conditioners (Cassia et al., 2017). It also isolates noise from outside. With this there is more peace for the residents and they have better sleep and quality of life.

 

 

Urban Heat Island Effect

Urban heat island effect is the common issue and it should address with sustainability in green roof. The practical evidences demonstrate that this is an assiduous strategy to maintain the healthy environment. The mentioned issue regarding the green roof usually evaluated in developed society.

Removal of Air Particulates

Air particulates remove by sustainability in green roof for the effective strategy in building healthy environment. Air particulates are not good for health so it is necessary to focus on this issue to reduce the risk factors pertaining to health.

 

Necessity of Shades and production of Oxygen

The production of oxygen is necessary for healthy environment so it is necessary to provide the shades in house building society. The reduction of oxygen have psychological and physical issues. The solution is to maintain the green shades on roof and enhance the rate of oxygen.

 

Methodology

Research Methodology

This would be a qualitative research methodology, which according to -(Cubi et al., 2016), is the collection of a qualitative and opinion-based information. This is in the form of interviews, and observations. Hence, this type of methodology allows to get sufficient and in-depth insight of the research phenomenon.

Research Design

The research design would be exploratory, hence, the strengths and weaknesses are to be identified and explored in this study. The participants would be involved and asked questions regarding the stated factors pertaining to the green roof in the context of sustainability (Mahmoud et al., 2017).

Collection of Data

The data would be collected from the specialists of sustainable development and those associated with the industry of green roof. They would be asked concerned questions for the application of green roof (Sutton, 2015; Creswell, and Clark, 2017). Meanwhile, the participants would be asked about the procedure and indulgence of technology in the installation of green roof. The primary i.e. qualitative and interview based methodology would allow to collect extensive information about the research questions developed.

Data Analysis

The data would be analysed using the thematic analysis method (Opoku, Ahmed, and Akotia, 2016). As the thematic analysis method is used in analysing the qualitative data, and specifically, the interview responses. The interview responses would be summarise and explained and compared with the findings of past studies in the selected context.

 

Ethics

No participant would be coerced and forced to take part in the interview (Creswell, and Clark, 2017). Every participant would have right to take part, discontinue the interview session. The inform consent form would be sent earlier to the interview.

 

 

Gantt Chart

Tasks Weeks
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10
Research Proposal                    
Chapter 1: Introduction                    
Chapter 2: Literature Review                    
Chapter 3: Research Methodology                    
Chapter4: Results, Discussion and Analysis                    
Writing of Discussion and Analysis                    
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations                    
Alteration, Structuring, Formatting and Proofreading                    
Final Submission of the Research                    

 

References

Alnawas, I. and Hemsley-Brown, J., 2018. The differential effect of cognitive and emotional elements of experience quality on the customer-service provider’s relationship. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management46(2), pp.125-147.

Cassia, F., Cobelli, N. and Ugolini, M., 2017. The effects of goods-related and service-related B2B brand images on customer loyalty. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing32(5), pp.722-732.

COMA, J., PÉREZ, G. & CABEZA, L. F. 2018. Life Cycle Assessment of Green Roofs. Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability. Elsevier.

Creswell, J.W. and Clark, V.L.P., 2017. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.

CUBI, E., ZIBIN, N. F., THOMPSON, S. J. & BERGERSON, J. 2016. Sustainability of rooftop technologies in cold climates: Comparative life cycle assessment of white roofs, green roofs, and photovoltaic panels. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20, 249-262.

GARGARI, C., BIBBIANI, C., FANTOZZI, F. & CAMPIOTTI, C. A. 2016. Environmental impact of Green roofing: the contribute of a green roof to the sustainable use of natural resources in a life cycle approach. Agriculture and agricultural science procedia, 8, 646-656.

Goussous, J., Siam, H. and Alzoubi, H., 2015. Prospects of green roof technology for energy and thermal benefits in buildings: Case of Jordan. Sustainable cities and Society14, pp.425-440.

Homburg, C., Jozić, D. and Kuehnl, C., 2017. Customer experience management: toward implementing an evolving marketing concept. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science45(3), pp.377-401.

Korol, E. and Shushunova, N., 2016. Benefits of a modular green roof technology. Procedia engineering161, pp.1820-1826.

LAW, E. P., DIEMONT, S. A. & TOLAND, T. R. 2017. A sustainability comparison of green infrastructure interventions using emergy evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 145, 374-385.

Mahmoud, A., Asif, M., Hassanain, M., Babsail, M. and Sanni-Anibire, M., 2017. Energy and economic evaluation of green roofs for residential buildings in hot-humid climates. Buildings7(2), p.30.

MAIOLO, M., CARINI, M., CAPANO, G., NIGRO, G. & PIRO, P. 2017. Life cycle assessment of a bitumen antiroot barrier in a green roof in the Mediterranean area. International Journal of Petrochemistry and Research, 2017-116.

Opoku, A., Ahmed, V. and Akotia, J., 2016. Choosing an appropriate research methodology and method. In Research Methodology in the Built Environment (pp. 52-70). Routledge.

PERINI, K. & ROSASCO, P. 2016. Is greening the building envelope economically sustainable? An analysis to evaluate the advantages of economy of scope of vertical greening systems and green roofs. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 20, 328-337.

RAGHEB, A., EL-SHIMY, H. & RAGHEB, G. 2016. Green architecture: A concept of sustainability. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 216.

ROSASCO, P. & PERINI, K. 2019. Selection of (Green) Roof Systems: A Sustainability-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis. Buildings, 9, 134.

SHAFIQUE, M., KIM, R. & RAFIQ, M. 2018. Green roof benefits, opportunities and challenges–A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, 757-773.

Shin, D.H., 2015. Effect of the customer experience on satisfaction with smartphones: Assessing smart satisfaction index with partial least squares. Telecommunications Policy39(8), pp.627-641.

Stovin, V., Vesuviano, G. and De-Ville, S., 2017. Defining green roof detention performance. Urban Water Journal14(6), pp.574-588.

Stovin, V., Vesuviano, G. and De-Ville, S., 2017. Defining green roof detention performance. Urban Water Journal14(6), pp.574-588.

Sutton, R.K., 2015. Introduction to green roof ecosystems. In Green Roof Ecosystems (pp. 1-25). Springer, Cham.

Vijayaraghavan, K., 2016. Green roofs: A critical review on the role of components, benefits, limitations and trends. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews57, pp.740-752.

ZHENG, H.N. and ZHAO, S.Y., 2018. Research on green roof reconstruction technology of existing buildings in severe cold area. Energy Conservation, (3), p.2.

 

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