Citric acid cycle, Discuss all the steps, in order that the | Homework Help

1. In which part of the citric acid cycle does substrate level phosphorylation occur? 

2. Is glucose the only source of energy for cells? If not, at which phase and in which form do other catabolic products typically get converted to ATP

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3. Discuss all the steps (complexes and carriers), in order that the electrons from NADH typical pass through before getting oxidized into water.

5. a) What would be the effect on ATP production of aIDing a substance that makes the mitochondrial membrane leaky to protons? b) What would be the effect on pH of the mitochondrial matrix of reducing the oxygen supply? c) Suppose that the glucose supply to the cell is greatly reduced. What would be the effect on CO2 production by the mitochondria?

6. Cytochrome c has at least two functions in mammalian cells: (1) in the electron transport chain, and (2) in apoptosis (programmed cell death). Describe what cytochrome c does in these two processes (HINT: refer to chapter 15 for apoptosis related information).

8. Why do plants shut down the Calvin Cycle in the dark if their ATP and NADPH levels fall?

9. In 1-2 sentences, briefly summarize what occurs during photosynthesis in light dependent and light independent reactions

10. How did the evolutionary development of photosynthesis set the stage in turn for the evolution of aerobic respiration?



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