Arab Open University Cultural Encounters and Exemptions Essay I want paraphrase from the book and slide TMA Cover Form FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES AA100B:
Arab Open University Cultural Encounters and Exemptions Essay I want paraphrase from the book and slide TMA Cover Form
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES
AA100B: The Arts Past and Present II
Part (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student)
2. Student ID No:
3. Section No:
4. Tel. :
I confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source.
Part (II): TUTOR’S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor)
Date TMA received:
The Arts Past and Present II
Summer Semester 2019-2020
Cut-off date: Week 6
Format and Word Count:
The student’s work should be presented in an ESSAY of around 1200 words.
The essay should include a list of references (print and electronic) at the end in addition to in-text
referencing as per the requirements of the Harvard Referencing System. Proper referencing is a
serious academic requirement and skill and will be rewarded accordingly.
Writing and Discussion Topic:
Difference-blind liberalism implies that justice is a matter of treating everyone equally, regardless
of their cultural identity. But the rule and exemption approach involves treating members of
cultural minorities differently. Hence, a difference-blind liberal will object that the rule and
exemption approach is unjust.
The arts Past and Present Book 3 Cultural Encounters p. 106
Over the course of history, the movement of individuals and populations has been a common
occurrence. There are instances were these movements were voluntary. In other instances, they
were caused by necessity, due to economic hardship and/or wars. The issue of immigrants and
refugees in today’s world is central and is a heated one. Societies, western and non-western alike,
seem divided over the issue. In the Western world, where most refugees seem to gravitate, the
issue of refugees and migrants is often treated from the liberalism lens as these countries are
professedly Lockean (after John Locke) in outlook. How does liberalism approach the issue of
refugees/migrants and their reception/integration?
In the process of answering the TMA, you should make sure to include the below seven sub
1) How does liberalism view humans and their rights?
2) Does liberalism justify discrimination? If yes, then on what grounds?
3) How does the “rule and exemption approach” approach the issue?
4) How does the “autonomy argument” approach the issue?
5) How does the “unequal impact argument” approach the issue?
6) How does the “argument by analogy” approach the issue?
7) How does the argument by Margalit and Raz approach the issue?
8) What is your reading of liberalism’s approach to the issue of refugees/migrants?
Guidance on Addressing the Topic:
Before you embark on writing the essay, you need to read carefully Book 3 Cultural Encounters
in order to familiarize yourself with the topic at large and make use of the skills presented in the
book when writing your essay. You are strongly advised to consult sources on the topic and widen
your knowledge of the topic under consideration, but it is of the utmost importance to document
any words or ideas that are not your own. Once you have the material ready, it is advisable that
you follow the steps (1-8) indicated in the section above to avoid omitting sub-questions. Although
the topic is most relevant to Unit 3, you should demonstrate your knowledge of the complexity of
the concept of cultural encounters as presented in the all the units to draw lessons and examples
from them if need be, and not model your treatment solely after a particular treatment appearing
in a single unit.
Note on the PT3 Form:
The tutor’s comments that appear here on the PT3 form and on the script of the student’s TMA
should be taken seriously by the student as mentioned in the Course Guide.
TMA Marking Descriptor
Excellent answers showing confident
and wide-ranging knowledge of core
material, good understanding of any
(18-20) relevant theory, and a capacity to
address the question in a structural,
direct and effective way, thoughtfully
and with insight. Originality of
thought or ideas from outside the
course are an added asset. Examples
are to the point.
B to B+
Very good answers showing secure
knowledge of course materials.
Adopting an analytical approach and
providing relevant discussion covering
most of the key issues. Distinguished
LANGUAGE & ORGANIZATION
– Has an introduction defining plan of
– Body divided into several paragraphs
– Conclusion which directly relates
arguments to topic.
– Evidence that essay has been edited.
– Error-free grammar & register.
– Wide range of specialized
– Consistent in-text citation and form
– First four criteria above maintained
– Demonstrates extensive grammar
– Terminology specialized but
C to C+
from A answers by being less
insightful or by showing less
comprehensive knowledge of the
adequate knowledge of the more
directly relevant course material and
concepts, with reasonable structure
and adequate coherence related to the
Answers which omit some concepts
/evidence and/or lack coherence
/structure, and/or make minor errors
while still demonstrating basic
understanding. Or Bare pass answers
which show awareness of some
relevant material and attempt to relate
it to the question.
Answers which attempt to draw upon
relevant material but do not reflect
sufficient knowledge of the course
and/or neglect the focus required by
the question, and/or are incomplete in
some important aspects whilst being
acceptable in others.
– Minor Inconsistency in in-text
citation and referencing
– Introduction and/or conclusion short
but still satisfactory.
– Evidence of editing.
– Less grammar control than above.
– Good range of specialized
– Inconsistent in in-text citation and
– Introduction and/or conclusion short
– no evidence of editing.
– Few grammatical errors that impede
– Above average range of specialized
– Slightly confused introduction and/or
conclusion, but body still fair.
– No evidence of editing.
– Some error types that impede
– Fair range of specialized terminology.
– Inaccurate in-text citation and
– No introduction and /or no conclusion.
– Body badly organized or irrelevant.
– Poor grammar control (extremely
limited range of grammar & register).
– Limited or not specialized range of
– No in-text citations and no
Cultural encounters and exemptions
Liberalism is one of the philosophical traditions that stresses the right of
individuals, the value of personal freedom and that every human being is of equal
moral worth. It rose in the 17th century as a reaction to hierarchy among humans .It
opposed discrimination which was created by cultural differences. Colonization is
one of the main reasons of cultural differences. They produce ethical and political
problems when the values of the minorities clash with the values of the dominant
“ Letter Concerning Toleration” by Lock is one of the founding letters of
liberalism. Liberalism has developed to produce Difference-Blind Liberalism.
The principle is; law and public policies should treat everybody in the same way
without discrimination regardless of their cultural identity or religious beliefs.
Discrimination is when one group of people is treated differently from another
Principle 1: it is unjust to discriminate between people on the basis of
consideration that are irrelevant to the situation. Ex., examiners award high marks
to charming students.
Principle 2: it is unjust to discriminate between people on the basis of
consideration that are not a matter of choice. Ex, a short basketball player was not
selected to participate in the National team. Neither principle 1 nor 2 apply to all
cases because it is not always about relevance or choice. The seriousness of
injustice is in the deep-seated , long-lasting inequalities.
Rule and exemption approach
In a cultural diverse society, laws conflict with the values of a cultural minority.
These conflicts have been managed by the rule and exemption approach . ex.
Exemption from compulsory wearing of crash helmet by the Sicks in UK was
passed in order to protect their religious values. Exemption is done to preserve a
long-established way of life , or to protect the cultural identity of the minority.
DBL object the rule and exemption approach because the former implies that
justice is a matter of treating everybody equally while the latter involving treating
members of cultural minorities differently.
The autonomy argument
Autonomy means self-rule. I act autonomously if I act in the way I choose to act.
Ex, wearing a crash helmet while riding my motorbike is a matter of freedom
because it is my own head. Autonomy arguments give liberals a reason to be
cautious about legislation that restricts personal freedom, but they do not give the
liberals a reason to reject DBL in favor of the rule and exemption approach
because they do not imply that members of cultural minorities should be treated
The unequal impact argument
DB laws do not treat everybody equally because they do not always affect
everybody in the same way. Ex, the case of the blanket prohibition of cannabis.
Cannabis is a substance taken by the Ethiopian Zionist Church people as a way to
relax. The prohibition prevents them from doing something significance to them.
if law does not have the same impact on everybody , it is not just.
the blanket prohibition does not have the same impact on everybody.
Conclusion: the blanket prohibition of cannabis is not just.
This is a valid deductive argument because when the premises of an argument are
true, the conclusion must be true.
The arguments by analogy
An argument by analogy starts from the premise that two things are alike, if
something is true of one, it must be of the other.
Ex, the supermarket’s parking policy impacts more heavily on people of limited
mobility, and that makes it unfair. Similarly, the blanket prohibition of cannabis
impacts more heavily the Ethiopian Zionist Church, and so by analogy, it is unfair.
This analogy is not a good one, because there is an important dissimilarity between
the two cases. People who are busy are busy because of the choices they make ,
and it is fair to ask them to bear the costs of their choice of lifestyle. But religion
and culture are not a matter of choice. Choice is an important consideration in
deciding whether a case of discrimination is unjust or not.
Analogy is not a deductive argument because building a strong analogy relies on
spotting similarities between the two cases, and to exclude important
dissimilarities. To decide whether an analogy is a good one, we need to think
further about the relationships between culture , religion and choice.
Autonomy and cultural resources
We need physical, economic and cultural resources to live autonomously. Cultural
resources play a big role in our lives, and being in an unfamiliar culture would lead
to a frustrating life. For such reason, people who value autonomy value exemptions
for minority cultures to enable them to pursue their activities in foreign countries
and to feel home.
Marglit and Raz are liberals who argue that it is important to preserve cultural
traditions , and they reject DBL because they believe that cultural groups should
1. Membership of a cultural group helps to determine what people want, and
what they are able to do.
2. People may choose to adopt a new culture as a result to moving to another
country. This process is painful, slow and rarely complete.
3. Adopting a new cultural tradition could not compensate the original one, and
the loss of our cultural tradition has a damaging effect.
4. The well-being of an individual depends on the well-being of their cultural
If Marglit and Raz are right, liberals should take it seriously because cultural
differences are relevant to public policy. However, this is not always the case. It
depends on the situation. Sometimes cultural differences foster autonomy, and
sometimes they thwart it. Therefore, we need to look carefully at each case and
note the outcomes.
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