Appraisal Measurements & Research Methodology Psychology Journal Review Paper This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, pee

Appraisal Measurements & Research Methodology Psychology Journal Review Paper This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, peer-reviewed psychology journal article. You should find an article containing research that examines motivation, emotion, and social psychology.

Begin by visiting the Online Library to locate and choose a journal article in which motivation and emotion are viewed under the lens of social psychology. The article must be peer-reviewed and should be no older than 7 years.

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A good place to start your search is the PsycARTICLES database or the Academic Search Complete database. You can access these databases from the Databases box on the library homepage.

Once you have chosen your article, you will write an article critique that addresses the following elements.

Explain the research methodology that was used in the study.
Discuss social factors that influence people or groups to conform to the actions of others.
Indicate how behaviors and motivation are impacted by the presence of others.
Indicate the structures of the brain that are involved in emotion and motivation.
Examine the article’s generalizability to various areas of psychology.

In addition, your article critique should clearly identify the article’s premise and present an insightful and thorough analysis with strong arguments and evidence. You should present your own informed and substantiated opinion on the article’s content. You must use at least one source in addition to your chosen article to support your analysis and opinion.

Your article critique must be a minimum of two pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. All sources used must be properly cited. Your article critique, including all references, must be formatted in APA style. Journal of Individual Differences
Perfectionism and the Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Motivation in Daily Life
Kelly L. Harper, Kari M. Eddington, Jaimie Lunsford, and Ariana C. Hoet
Online First Publication, November 5, 2019.
Harper, K. L., Eddington, K. M., Lunsford, J., & Hoet, A. C. (2019, November 5). Perfectionism and
the Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Daily Life. Journal of Individual Differences.
Advance online publication.
Original Article
Perfectionism and the Impact of
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
in Daily Life
Kelly L. Harper, Kari M. Eddington, Jaimie Lunsford, and Ariana C. Hoet
Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, USA
Abstract: Previous research indicates that socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) are associated with
extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, respectively. However, little is known about the impact of daily intrinsic and extrinsic motivated goals on
affect in perfectionists. This daily diary study examined the extent to which perfectionism moderates the relationship between motivation
(intrinsic and extrinsic) and affect (including self-conscious emotions). Participants (N = 132) varying in levels of perfectionism completed
14 days of online surveys that included questions about pursuit of daily goals and affect. SOP did not predict the covariation of types of
motivation and affect. SPP, by contrast, predicted the covariation of extrinsic motivation and guilt (and pride). Results suggest that for people
high on SPP, pursuing extrinsic motivated goals is associated with higher levels of guilt and lower levels of pride. Future directions and
implications are discussed.
Keywords: perfectionism, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, daily diary, emotion
Perfectionism is conceptualized as a multidimensional
personality construct (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). Two commonly examined dimensions of perfectionism are socially
prescribed perfectionism (SPP), the perception that others
have excessively high standards for oneself, and selforiented perfectionism (SOP), holding excessively high
personal standards (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). A key difference
between these dimensions is the relation to types of goal
motivation. According to Self-Determination Theory
(SDT), the reasons why people pursue goals (i.e., goal motivation) range on a continuum from intrinsically motivated
to varying degrees of extrinsically motivated (Deci & Ryan,
2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Intrinsically motivated goal
pursuit is pursuing goals for personal pleasure or enjoyment
(Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extrinsically motivated goal pursuit
at the farthest end of the continuum is defined by pursuing
goals that are introjected and valued by others (Deci &
Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Research suggests that
SPP is associated with higher extrinsic motivation and
SOP is associated with higher intrinsic motivation (Harvey
et al., 2015; Miquelon, Vallerand, Grouzet, & Cardinal,
2005). Research on these dimensions of perfectionism
and their relations to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
has focused primarily on stable motivational styles (Mills
& Blankstein, 2000; Miquelon et al., 2005) characterizing
perfectionists’ general approach to work and academics.
Ó 2019 Hogrefe Publishing
However, the extent to which these trait-like motivational
tendencies are reflected in the daily experiences of goal
pursuit among perfectionists is unknown.
The daily pursuit of intrinsically and extrinsically motivated goals has different emotional consequences. People
experience higher levels of well-being, higher daily positive
affect, and lower daily negative affect when they pursue
intrinsically motivated goals (Perunovic, Heller, Ross, &
Komar, 2011; Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996). Pursuing extrinsically motivated goals, in contrast, is associated with higher
daily negative affect (Perunovic et al., 2011). Of note, these
studies have relied on broad dimensions of affect, such as
positive and negative affect scales. Studies have not
examined the specific impact on self-conscious emotions
(e.g., pride and guilt), which may be uniquely important in
the study of motivational processes because of their strong
connection to the self-evaluation of goal progress.
Tracy and Robins’s (2004) process model of selfconscious emotions posits that self-conscious emotions
result from self-evaluative processes in which people evaluate the congruence of events with their self-representations
and identity goals. According to the model, pride results
from a congruence between the appraisal of a situation,
self-representation, and identity goals (e.g., a student whose
self-identity is defined in part by being a successful student
receives a good grade on an exam). Guilt and shame,
Journal of Individual Differences (2019)
however, result from an incongruence between appraisals
of an event, self-representation, and identity goals (e.g.,
the same student receives a poor grade on an exam). Variations in self-conscious emotions related to different motivational styles may reflect an incongruence in goal pursuit
and identity goals. For example, people may experience
pride when pursuing intrinsically motivated goals, which
are likely more personally relevant, than when pursuing
extrinsically motivated goals. Moreover, pursuing extrinsically motivated goals, which are likely less personally relevant, may be associated with guilt. For example, a student
may pursue a college degree not because they want to, but
because of their parent’s expectations. Because that goal is
being pursued primarily to meet someone else’s needs, the
goal is not personally fulfilling and ambivalence about it can
result in feelings of guilt, especially if personally valued
goals are ignored. Taken together, self-conscious emotions
(as compared to broad measures of positive and negative
affect) may more closely reflect self-evaluations of progress
towards different types of motivation, such as intrinsically
or extrinsically motivated goals.
In addition to goal pursuit, self-conscious emotions have
unique associations with different dimensions of perfectionism. Research suggests that SOP and other similar constructs involving high personal standards are associated
with pride (Curran & Hill, 2018; Stoeber, Kempe, & Keogh,
2008). SPP is associated with shame and guilt (Curran &
Hill, 2018; Stoeber et al., 2008). Of note, the majority of
the studies on perfectionism and self-conscious emotions
have focused on reactions to success or failure in contrived
lab tasks (Curran & Hill, 2018; Stoeber et al., 2008) and
have not measured self-conscious emotions in daily life.
Although studies have not looked specifically at daily selfconscious emotions, research on perfectionism and daily
general affect suggests that SPP, and other forms of
maladaptive perfectionism (e.g., self-critical perfectionism),
are associated with lower daily positive affect and higher
daily negative affect (Dunkley, Berg, & Zuroff, 2012;
Dunkley, Zuroff, & Blankstein, 2003; Mushquash & Sherry,
2012; Prud’homme et al., 2017). Findings regarding forms
of perfectionism involving personal standards, however,
have been inconsistent. Some studies have found that
higher personal standards are weakly to moderately associated with higher negative affect (Dunkley et al., 2003;
Prud’homme et al., 2017; Saboonchi & Lundh, 2003;
Stoeber & Corr, 2015) and lower positive affect (Saboonchi
& Lundh, 2003), while others find no significant relationship with affect (Dunkley et al., 2012; Mushquash & Sherry,
2012; Stoeber & Corr, 2015). Given the important connection between self-evaluation and self-conscious emotions,
studies that aim to understand the daily experiences of
people with perfectionism, particularly in relation to goal
Journal of Individual Differences (2019)
K. L. Harper et al., Perfectionism and Motivation
pursuit (which has obvious implications for self-evaluation),
should include not only general measures of positive and
negative affect but also items assessing self-conscious
The purpose of the present study was to examine the
relations among perfectionism, intrinsically and extrinsically motivated goals, and daily general and self-conscious
affect using a daily diary approach. First, we made several
predictions primarily involving replications of previous findings. It was hypothesized that higher SPP would be associated with higher negative emotions and lower positive
emotions. SOP, in contrast, has not consistently been
associated with daily affect (findings have been mixed, as
discussed above); therefore, there were no specific hypotheses regarding the association between SOP and daily
emotions. With regard to the covariation of daily motivation
and emotion, we expected to replicate previous findings
regarding general affect, but our study provides novel data
on self-conscious emotions as well. It was expected that
higher levels of positive emotions, including pride, and
lower levels of negative emotions, including guilt, would
be associated with the pursuit of goals that are more intrinsically motivated (Perunovic et al., 2011). In contrast, we
expected that higher levels of daily negative emotions,
including guilt, and lower levels of positive emotion, including pride, would be associated with the pursuit of goals that
are more extrinsically motivated. Based on previous findings that SPP and SOP are associated with trait-like extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, respectively (Miquelon et al.,
2005), it was hypothesized that SPP and SOP would be
associated with the pursuit of daily goals that are more
extrinsically and intrinsically motivated, respectively.
To our knowledge, no previous study has examined
perfectionism, motivation, and emotion together using a
daily diary design. Therefore, we explored whether the
covariation of type of motivation (intrinsic/extrinsic) and
emotion was moderated by perfectionism (SPP and SOP).
We expected that SPP and SOP would moderate the covariation due to the previously established relation between
SPP and SOP and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, respectively. Specifically, we expected that people with higher
levels of SOP should experience a stronger association
between intrinsic motivation and positive emotion (including pride), and lower levels of negative emotion (including
guilt), on days when they are focused on intrinsically motivated goals. Likewise, based on established relationships
between SPP and extrinsic motivation, and between extrinsic motivation and emotion, people with higher levels of
SPP should experience higher levels of negative emotion
(including guilt), and lower levels of positive emotion
(including pride), on days when they are focused on extrinsically motivated goals.
Ó 2019 Hogrefe Publishing
K. L. Harper et al., Perfectionism and Motivation
Participants (N = 162) were undergraduate students at a
Southeastern University who received partial course credit
for their participation in a daily diary study that lasted
14 days. Participants with fewer than 7 diary surveys were
excluded from the analyses. Overall, the 131 participants
that were included in analyses had a mean age of
18.91 years (SD = 1.72) and were 78.6% female. Additionally, participants were 43.5% Caucasian, 31.3% African
American, 12.2% Asian, 6.9% Hispanic, 3.1% American
Indian/Alaskan Native, and 3.1% Middle Eastern/Arab.
Sample size was based on convenience, however, it is comparable to the sample sizes in recent daily diary studies
(Newman & Nezlek, 2019; Nezlek, Rusanowska, Holas, &
Krejtz, 2017). Moreover, the sample size is comparable to
a similar daily diary study that examined the effect of
individual difference factors on intrinsic and extrinsic
motivated goals in daily life (Perunovic et al., 2011).
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)
The MPS (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) is a self-report scale that
measures three trait dimensions of perfectionism: socially
prescribed perfectionism (SPP), self-oriented perfectionism
(SOP), and other-oriented perfectionism (OOP). The 45
items are rated on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree
to 7 = strongly agree). Only the SOP and SPP scales were
used in the analyses. The subscales demonstrated good
internal consistency (SOP Cronbach’s α = .87; SPP α = .82).
Daily Diary Items
Daily affect was measured with items from the Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule-X (PANAS-X; Watson & Clark,
1994). From the PANAS-X, we used the Sadness (5 items),
Guilt (6 items), and Jovial (8 items) subscales, which previously have had good internal consistency (Watson & Clark,
1994). Based on our interest in self-conscious emotions, we
also added a single item to assess pride. Participants
responded on a scale from 0 = not at all to 6 = extremely
to indicate how much they felt each specific emotion in
the moment. The order of the emotion items was randomized each day.
Participants were asked to provide an important personal
goal they focused on the most that day. The items used to
assess reasons for goal pursuit were based on previous measures of the reasons for pursuing goals that range from
intrinsic to extrinsic (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999; Sheldon &
Kasser, 1995), and were similar to items used in a previous
diary study (Perunovic et al., 2011). Two items measured
Ó 2019 Hogrefe Publishing
motivation: “I am pursuing this goal because of the fun
and enjoyment it provides me” (intrinsic motivation) and
“I am pursuing this goal because somebody else wants
me to, or because the situation demands it” (extrinsic motivation), each rated from 0 = not at all to 6 = extremely.
Participants completed the MPS in the lab and received
instructions for the daily surveys. The daily surveys were
emailed to participants once per day for 14 consecutive
days via a Qualtrics ( link that
remained open only between 5 pm and 12 am. The
completed surveys were also time and date stamped to
ensure they were completed during the specified day and
time period. The mean number of completed surveys per
participant was 11.73 (78%).
Data Analytic Strategy
Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data (Level 1:
daily diary items; Level 2: SPP and SOP; Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013). We centered the Level 2 variables at the
sample’s grand mean and the Level 1 variables at each person’s own mean (i.e., group-mean centering). The models
were estimated with Mplus 7 using maximum likelihood
with robust standard errors. Both SOP and SPP were
included in the models. To examine cross-level interactions,
the moderating role of Level 2 variables (SOP and SPP)
within a Level 1 relationship (e.g., the slope between intrinsic
motivation and PANAS-X subscale score) was tested by
regressing the Level 1 slope on SOP and SPP. Due to the
complexity and the inconsistency in methods to calculate
effect sizes for multilevel models in the literature, effect
sizes are not reported; however, 95% Confidence Intervals
(CI’s) are reported in Table 1 for the multilevel regression
The Level 1 and Level 2 models are below:
Level 1 :
Y ij ¼ β0j þ β1j ðIntrinsic goalsÞ
þ β2j ðExtrinsic goalsÞ þ r ij :
Level 2 : β0j ¼ γ00 þ γ01 ðSPPÞj þ γ02 ðSOPÞj þ u0j :
β1j ¼ γ10 þ γ11 ðSPPÞj þ γ12 ðSOPÞj þ u1j :
The sample had a mean score of 66.53 on SOP (SD = 16.21)
and 57.29 on SPP (SD = 13.83). See Table 2 for the means,
standard deviations, zero-order correlations, and intraclass correlations (ICCs) for all daily diary data. The ICCs
Journal of Individual Differences (2019)
K. L. Harper et al., Perfectionism and Motivation
Table 1. Self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism moderating the slope of daily emotion and goal motivation
Diary variables
B [95% CI]
B [95% CI]
0.2 [.41, .00]
0.24 [.05, .43]
0.14 [.32, .03]
0.21 [.03, .39]
0.16 [.12, .44]
0.09 [.37, .18]
0.31 [.02, .64]
0.05 [.39, .30]
Intrinsic Motivation
0.27 [.02, .57]
0.14 [.45, 0.16]
0.01 [.02, .03]
0.01 [.04, .02]
0.01 [.04, .02]
Sadness Intrinsic
Guilt Intrinsic
0.02 [.02, .05]
Jovial Intrinsic
0.03 [.08, .02]
0.01 [.06, .03]
Pride Intrinsic
0.02 [.08, .04]
0.02 [.07, .03]
Extrinsic Motivation
0.22 [.53, .09]
0.29 [.04, .61]
0.00 [.04, .04]
0.01 [.02, .04]
Sadness Extrinsic
Guilt Extrinsic
0.02 [.05, .01]
0.03 [.00, .05]
Jovial Extrinsic
0.03 [.04, .10]
0.04 [.09, .01]
Pride Extrinsic
0.03 [.04, .10]
0.06 [.11, .00]
Note. CI = Confidence Interval for B; SOP = Self-Oriented Perfectionism; SPP = Socially Prescribed Perfectionism. N = 127 participants (Level 2) with 1,488
observations (Level 1). SOP and SPP are standardized. Values in bold represent findings with a p-value of .05 or less.
Table 2. Means, standard deviations, intraclass correlations, and correlations for daily diary variables
Dairy variables
1. PANAS Jovial

2. PANAS Sad

3. PANAS Guilt

4. Proud

5. Intrinsic goal
6. Extrinsic goal


Note. ICC = Intraclass Correlation; PANAS = Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-X.
suggested that multilevel models are appropriate for the
Perfectionism and Daily Emotions
The first set of analyses examined the main effects of SPP
and SOP on the daily emotions, which were measured with
the Sadness, Guilt, and Jovial PANAS subscales and a single
item assessing pride. Consistent with our hypotheses, SPP
predicted daily negative affect (Sadness and Guilt scores;
see Table 1) but not daily positive affect or pride. SOP negatively predicted Sadness scores and there was a nonsignificant trend of SOP on pride [B = 0.31, F(6, 131) = 1.84, p =
0.07]. SOP did not predict scores on Jovial or Guilt.
Goal Motivation and Emotion
The next set of analyses examined the within-subject
(Level 1) covariation between daily goal motivation (intrinsic
or extrinsic) and affect. As expected, when people pursued
intrinsically motivated goals they had higher positive
affect [Jovial: B = .10, F(6, 131) = 5.50, p < .00; Pride: B = Journal of Individual Differences (2019) 0.04, F(6, 131) = 1.88, p = .06 (nonsignificant trend)] and lower negative affect [Sadness: B = 0.02, F(6, 131) = 2.05, p = .04; Guilt: B = 0.02, F(6, 131) = 2.62, p < .01]. However, extrinsic motivation was not associated with daily affect [Jovial: B = 0.03, F(6, 131) = 1.20, p = .23; Sadness: B = 0.00, F(6, 131) = 0.76, p = .45; Guilt: B = 0.02, F(6, 131) = 1.52, p = .13; Pride: B = 0.02, F(6, 131) = 0.72, p = .49]. Perfectionism and Goal Motivation To examine whether individual differences in perfectionism predicted daily goal motivation, measures of daily intrinsic and extrinsic goal motivation were regressed on SPP and SOP. SPP did not predict intrinsic goal motivation and there was a nonsignificant trend for SPP on extrinsic motivation [B = 0.29, F(3, 127) = 1.71, p = .09; see Table 1]. SOP did not predict extrinsic motivation; however, there was a nonsignificant trend of SOP predicting intrinsic motivation [B = 0.27, F(3, 127) = 1.88, p = .07]. We also examined whether the strength of the relationship between goal motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and Ó 2019 Hogrefe Publishing K. L. Harper et al., Perfectionism and Motivation 5 Figure 1. Cross-level interact... Purchase answer to see full attachment


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