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WELCOME 1. WHAT IS A CITATION AND
WHAT IS A REFERENCE?
3
2. WHY SHOULD I INCLUDE
REFERENCES IN MY WORK?
3.WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?
You should include references in order to:
• acknowledge that the work/idea belongs
to another person
• provide evidence of your own research
• illustrate a particular point
• support an argument or theory
• allow others to locate the resources you
have used
And most importantly to:
• avoid accusations of plagiarism
Plagiarism is taking the words, ideas or
work of other people and passing them
off as your own. In the UK, plagiarism
is considered a form of cheating. The
University takes cases of plagiarism
very seriously. If you are found to have
plagiarised, you will face disciplinary
procedures which could ultimately result in
your expulsion from the University.
In order not to risk being accused of
plagiarising the work of others, you must
cite your sources and add them to your
reference list.
4.1 Citing works by one author
In the Harvard system, whenever you refer
to a source, its author’s surname and the
year of publication are inserted in the text
as in the following examples.
Keeping good records of your research
sources will help you reference correctly
(Kirton, 2011).
If the author’s surname is used to construct
your sentence, only the year is in brackets.
Kirton (2011) recommends keeping good
records of your research sources to help
you reference correctly.
4.2 Using direct quotes
If you quote directly from a source you must
use quotation marks and insert the author’s
surname, year of publication and the page
number of the quotation. Check with your
department or school if they require single
or double quotation marks as this varies.
“Search engine optimization and marketing
communication are keys to finding and
keeping customers” (Poloian, 2013, p217).
The year and page number can be given
at the end of the quote, as in the example
below.
Poloian states that “search engine
optimization and marketing communication
are keys to finding and keeping customers”
(2013, p217).
4.3 Citing works by two or three authors
If your source has two or three authors
you should include all names in the text
using ‘and’, not ‘&’, between the final two
authors’ names.
Class activities need to be aligned with
intended outcomes and should build on
relevant knowledge (Biggs and Tang, 2011).
Establishing agreed ground rules is vital in
effective group working (Ramsay, Maier and
Price, 2010).
4.4 Citing works by more than three authors
If there are more than three authors you
should include the first named author’s
surname and then add ‘et al.’ This is an
abbreviation of ‘et alia’ which means ‘and
others’ in Latin.
Knowledge of what managers do is a
prerequisite of studying management
accounting (Seal et al., 2015).
4.5 Citing a chapter or section of a
book/publication
When referring to a chapter or section
which is part of a larger work, you
should cite the author of the chapter not
the editor of the whole work. (See 5.1.3).
“The growth of sectors such as ecotourism
show that there is a strong touristic desire to
connect to the natural environment”
(Cater, 2013, p119).
4. CITING REFERENCES
IN THE TEXT
4 5
4.6 Citing a work without an author
If an organisation (e.g. Department of
Health, Arcadia Group Limited) is named as
the author of a work rather than a person,
you should cite the organisation’s name.
Always use the full name, e.g. always use
‘Department of Health’, don’t abbreviate to
‘DoH’. If you cannot find an author, personal
or corporate, use the title of the source.
Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the
United Kingdom and the United States
together receive more than 50% of all
foreign students worldwide (Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and
Development, 2013).
4.7 Citing works by the same author written
in the same year
If you cite two or more works written in the
same year by the same author, then you
must differentiate between them in both the
text and your list of references by listing
them as a, b, c etc. (see 5.3).
Natural selection can cause rapid adaptive
changes in insect populations (Ayala,
1965a) and various laboratory experiments
have been conducted to assess this theory
(Ayala, 1965b).
4.8 Citing secondary sources
When citing a secondary source, include
the surname of the author and year of
publication of that source in your text,
followed by ‘cited in’ and the surname of
the author and year of publication of the
primary source you are actually reading.
Only the source that you have read and
used, i.e. Kline et al. in the example below,
should be listed in your references. Ideally,
you should only cite secondary sources
if you are unable to locate and read the
original source yourself.
Sheff (1993) notes that Nintendo invested
heavily in advertising (cited in Kline et al.,
2003, p118).
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4.9 Citing online sources
When citing online sources, the author’s
name is followed by the publication date
in the text, as explained previously. If you
are quoting directly from a website it is
impossible to cite exact page numbers.
The following format and punctuation
should be used.
• Author’s surname (if known), or name of
owning organisation (see 4.6),
• (Year). If known, or (no date). if year
not known.
Citation from online source with an author:
“Salinger plays on readers’ dependence
on Holden’s worldview—and unreliable
narration—often, and perhaps most subtly
through language” (Wright, 2013).
Citation from online source without an
author:
The Arcadia Group comprises nine high
street brands, eight online stores and
employs 45,000 people (Arcadia Group
Limited, no date).
5. Writing a bibliography or list of
references
The list of references appears on a separate
page at the end of your work and gives
the full details of every source that you
have cited in your text in alphabetical
order according to the author’s surname.
This list of references may be called the
bibliography.
Your tutor may ask for the ‘bibliography’
to be more than just a list of references, as
outlined above. They may also want to see
the full details of everything you have read
during the research of your assignment,
regardless of whether or not you cited the
source in the text.
Remember to check your course handbook/
guidelines so you are familiar with exactly
what your school or department requires.
All sources must be referenced in a
consistent way. The examples given here
provide a guide to the format and
punctuation you should use.
5.1 Printed books
Printed books should be referenced using
the following format and punctuation.
• Author/editor’s surname and initials.
• (Year of publication).
• Title of book, subtitles, edition. [Note: It
is generally only the 2nd edition onwards
which includes the edition statement. If the
book is a first edition simply put Title of
book: subtitles.]
• Place of publication:
• Name of publisher.
5.1.1 Reference to a book with one, two or
three authors
Poloian, L.R. (2013). Retailing principles:
global, multichannel, and managerial
viewpoints, 2nd ed. New York: Fairchild.
Biggs, J. and Tang, C. (2011). Teaching
for quality learning at university, 4th ed.
Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Ramsay, P., Maier, P. and Price, G. (2010).
Study skills for business and management
students. Harlow: Longman.
5.1.2 Reference to a book with more than
three authors
Some schools/departments require you to
list all the authors of a work, others allow
you to use ‘et al.’ in your list of references.
Make sure you know which style is
preferred by your subject area(s).
Listing all the authors:
Seal, W.B., Garrison, R.H., Rohde, C.
and Noreen, E.W. (2015). Management
Accounting, 5th ed. Maidenhead:
McGraw-Hill.
Using ‘et al.’ instead of listing all four of the
authors:
Seal, W.B. et al. (2015). Management
Accounting, 5th ed. Maidenhead:
McGraw-Hill.
5. WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY OR
LIST OF REFERENCES
7
5.1.3 Reference to a chapter or section
contained in a larger work
Include chapter or section page numbers
at the end.
Cater, C. (2013). Nature bites back:
impacts of the environment on tourism.
In: Holden, A. and Fennell, D. (eds.)
The Routledge handbook of tourism and
the environment. London: Routledge,
119-129.
5.2 Electronic books (e-books)
Electronic books should be referenced using
the following format and punctuation:
• Author/editor’s surname and initials.
• (Year of print publication).
• Title of book: subtitles, edition.
[Note: It is generally only the 2nd edition
onwards which includes the edition
statement. If the book is a first edition
simply put Title of book: subtitles.]
• Place of publication:
• Name of publisher.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Packard, A. (2013). Digital media law.
2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Available from http://www.dawsonera.com
[Accessed 12 February 2015].
5.3 Print journals
Articles from print journals should be
referenced using the following format and
punctuation. See 5.1.1 and 5.1.2 for how to
reference articles with more than one author.
• Author’s surname, initials.
• (Year of publication).
• Title of article.
• Title/name of journal,
• Volume number
• (Part/issue number),
• Page numbers.
Dolgin, E. (2012). Rewriting evolution.
Nature, 486 (7404), 460-462.
If the same author has two articles published
in the same year, distinguish as follows:
Ayala, F. J. (1965a). Evolution of fitness.
Science, 150 (3698), 903-905.
Ayala, F.J. (1965b). Relative fitness of
populations. Genetics, 51 (4), 527-544.
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5.4 Electronic journals (e-journals) and
newspaper articles
Electronic journals may have a Digital
Object Identifier (DOI) and/or a URL. Either
can be used to say where the article is
available from.
E-journals should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Author’s surname, initials.
• (Year of print publication).
• Title of article: subtitle.
• Name of journal,
• Volume number
• (Part/issue number),
• Page numbers.
• Available from URL or DOI
• [Accessed day month year].
5.4.1 E-journal article reference using URL
Pintz, C. and Posey, L. (2013). Preparing
students for graduate study: an eLearning
approach. Nurse Education Today, 33 (7),
734-738. Available from http://science
direct.com/science/article/pii/S02606917
12003930 [Accessed 13 January 2015].
5.4.2 E-journal article reference using a
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Pintz, C. and Posey, L. (2013). Preparing
students for graduate study: an eLearning
approach. Nurse Education Today, 33 (7),
734-738. Available from http://dx.doi.org/
10.1016/j.nedt.2012.11.020 [Accessed
13 January 2015].
5.4.3 Online newspaper articles
Online newspapers should be referenced
using the following format and punctuation.
• Author’s surname, initials.
• (Year of publication).
• Title of article: subtitle.
• Name of newspaper,
• Day and month of publication.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Petridis, A. (2015). Rocking the casbah:
the gig of a lifetime back on stage. The
Guardian, 16 March. Available from
http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/
mar/16/no-lands-songs-sara-najafi-iranwomen-
concert [Accessed 16 March 2015].
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5.5 Reports
Reports should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Author/editor’s surname, initials.
• (Date of publication).
• Title of report: subtitles, edition. [Note: It
is generally only the 2nd edition onwards
which includes the edition statement. If the
report is a first edition simply put Title of
report: subtitles.]
• Place of publication:
• Name of publisher.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Mowlam, A. et al. (2012). Active at 60:
local evaluation research: final report.
London: Department for Work and Pensions.
Available from https://www.gov.uk/
government/uploads/attachment _data/
file/214572/rrep786.pdf
[Accessed 26 March 2015].
5.6 Conference papers
Conference papers should be referenced
using the following format and punctuation.
• Author of conference paper’s surname,
initials.
• (Date of publication).
• Title of paper.
• In: Editor’s surname, initials., eds,
• Title of conference proceedings.
• Place of conference.
• Date of conference.
• Place of publication:
• Publisher,
• Page numbers of paper.
Roast, C. (2012). Constraining and creating
solutions: reflections on the analysis of early
design. In: Winckler, M. Forbrig, P. and
Bernhaupt, R., eds. Human-centred software
engineering: 4th international conference,
HCSE 2012. Toulouse, France. 29-31
October 2012. Heidelberg: Springer,
130-145.
10
5.7 Legal sources
Legislation should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Short title
• Year of publication,
• c. Chapter number.
The Housing Act 2004, c.34.
Cases should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Party names
• Year case was reported in square brackets
[ ] where the date is essential to the
citation, or regular parenthesis ( ) if the
date is merely an aid to identifying the
source
• Volume number
• Abbreviation of the law report title
• Page number on which case report starts.
Smith v Northamptonshire County Council
[2009] 4 All ER 557.
5.8 Web pages and YouTube videos
Web pages and YouTube videos should be
referenced using the following format and
punctuation.
• Author or editor’s surname, initials.
Or organisation
• (Year of publication).
• Title.
• Name of website.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Goldacre, B. (2015). I did a Newsnight
thing about how politics needs better data.
Bad Science. Available from http://bad
science/2015/02/ [Accessed 12 March
2015].
University of Westminster (2014). Welcome
to the library. YouTube. Available from http:
//www.youtube.com/watch?v/=5eMcxV2e
KA8 [Accessed 12 March 2015].
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5.8.1 What if I can’t find the author
or date for a webpage?
In cases where you are unable to identify an
actual person as the author of a publication,
particularly when using internet sources, you
should use the name of the company
or organisation shown most prominently
on the source, e.g. BBC, Office for
National Statistics. If you are unable to
identify the date use (no date).
British Dyslexia Association (no date).
Dyslexia and specific difficulties: Overview.
British Dyslexia Association. Available from
http://bdadyslexia.org.uk/dyslexic/dyslexiaand-
specific-difficulties-overview. [Accessed
12 March 2015].
5.9 Online images
Online images should be referenced using
the following format and punctuation.
• Artist’s surname, initials. Or organisation
• (Year).
• Title or description of image.
• [image].
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Rothko, M. (1959). Red on maroon [image].
Available from http://www.tate.org.uk/
/art/artworks/rothko-red-on-maroon-t01165
[Accessed 29 July 2014].
5.10 DVDs
DVDs should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Title
• (Year).
• Director
• [DVD].
• Place of distribution:
• Distribution company.
Rear window (2010). Directed by Alfred
Hitchcock [DVD]. United Kingom:
Universal Pictures.
12 13
5.11 Television programme on Box
of Broadcasts
Television programmes that are viewed
online via services such as Box of
Broadcasts should be referenced using
the following format and punctuation.
• Episode title
• (Year).
• Main programme/series title
• [television programme]
• Transmission channel,
• Transmission date,
• Transmission time.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Dedicated Followers of Fashion (2012).
Britain On Film, [television programme].
BBC Four, 27 November 20:30. Available
from http://bobnational.net/record/127226
[Accessed 31 July 2014].
5.12 Lecture notes
Check with your tutor first to ensure they are
happy for you to reference their work.
• Author’s surname, initials.
• (Year).
• Title.
• [lecture notes].
• Name of module.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Smith, J. (2013). Week 3: how to
reference your work [lecture notes].
Research methods. Available from
https://learning.westminster.ac.uk/
[Accessed 29 July 2014].
14
Online tools such as RefWorks, Endnote,
Zotero and Mendeley are also available for
you to use. For further information, see the
Referencing Your Work webpage:
westminster.ac.uk/referencing-your-work
For information on citing resources not
mentioned here (e.g. patents) please see
British Standard BS 5605:1990.
Recommendations for citing and referencing
published material.
BS 5605 is available online from British
Standards Online via Library Search.
If you are unsure, ask your tutor or contact
your Academic Liaison Librarian for advice
westminster.ac.uk/academicliaison
Updated June 2016
6. OTHER INFORMATION
5.13 Discussion forums
Discussion forums should be referenced
using the following format and punctuation.
• Author’s surname, initials.
• (Year).
• Title of post.
• Title of discussion thread
• [forum post].
• Name of module or forum.
• Available from URL
• [Accessed day month year].
Khan, A. (2013). How to reference.
General discussion [forum post]. Research
methods. Available from https://learning.
westminster.ac.uk/ [Accessed 29 July 2014].
5.14 Emails
Emails should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.
• Sender’s surname, initials.
• (Year).
• Subject.
• [email].
• Sent to Name of recipient,
• Day and month the email was sent.
Murphy, E. (2014). Referencing help guide.
[email]. Sent to Sara Goddard, 16 July.
15
NOTES
NOTES
16
A charity and a company limited by guarantee. Registration number: 977818.
Registered office: 309 Regent Street, London W1B 2UW.
7985/06.16/JW/GP

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