Solution-Eradicate a viral disease using a vaccination | Homework Help

Question 1

Which of the following are absolutely required to eradicate a viral disease using a vaccination program (select two)?

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A. Virus is only able to infect human hosts.
B. The viral disease must be caused by a RNA virus
C. The vaccine must be an attenuated virus
D. Vaccine induces lifelong immunity.
E. The vaccine must stimulate T-cells

Question 2

For a vaccine to be effective, not every individual in the population need be vaccinated to stop the spread of the virus. The number of people that must be vaccinated to produce herd immunity is called the herd immunity threshold. The herd immunity threshold is calculated from the basic reproductive number R0: which is the average number of secondary infections from a single individual infected with a virus. Calculate the herd immunity threshold for the following two viruses:
Human Papilloma Virus (reproductive number = 1.2) Blank 1 %
Influenza A Virus (reproductive number = 4) Blank 2 %

Question 3

A vaccine in which the viral polymerase is deleted would be classified as a (select one)?

A. Virus-like Particle Vaccine
B. Attenuated vaccine
C. Subunit vaccine
D. Inactivated vaccine

Question 4

Genetic drift and genetic shift are significant obstacles to the development of vaccines


Question 5

Briefly describe why antiviral drugs tend to be ineffective against acute viral infections


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Question 6

Many of the drugs used to treat HIV inhibit the synthesis of new viral genomes from the provirus?

Question 7
If resistance to the HIV drug Lamuvidine occurs once in every 10,000 genomes produced and resistance to the protease inhibitor Ritonavir occurs every 5,000 genomes produced, then the likelihood of resistance developing to both drugs is (select one)?
1 in 5000
1 in 15,000
1in 50,000,000
1in 500,000
1 in 10,000

Question 8
Match each of the following drugs with the step in the viral lifecycle that they inhibit.
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A. Virus Attachment and Entry
B. Virus Genome Synthesis
C. Viral Protein Processing
D. Virus exit and release

Question 9

Of the eight antiviral drugs listed in the previous question, which drug is least likely to lead to viral drug resistance? Why (3-4 sentences max)?

Question 10

There has been much excitement in recent years about the use of the drug tenofovir ointment to prevent HIV infections in women. The general class of antiviral drugs that are administered as either a cream or ointment that can inactivate virions or block their ability to attach and penetrate tissues are called [x]?

Question 11
A new antiviral drug that targets the Hepatitis C virus polymerase (NS5B) is prescribed to a patient with severe liver disease. After a few weeks on the drug the level of viral RNA in the blood drops dramatically and the patient’s liver disease improves. After six months, the patient’s viral load increases dramatically and liver disease returns. Provide a rational explanation for what has occurred with this patient. What therapy or drug regime might have provided a better result (limit 5-6 sentences)?

Question 12
If a single dose therapy could be developed that removed all infectious HIV viral particles (i.e. virus genome surrounded by capsid and envelope) from a patient, would this result in a functional cure such that the patient would not develop AIDs? Justify your answer in 3-5 sentences.


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