PART 3 OF HANDOUT: REPORTING THE RESULTS.
HOMEWORK #3 (HW#3): 26 Points, Due Date: Thursday, 2/27, by 5:00 p.m.
In HW#3 you will complete your Class Project Report. In the last assignment (HW#2) you wrote the Introduction (including your hypothesis paragraph) of the report. Now, for HW#3, you will add the Method, Results, and Discussion sections. You will end your project report with a References Section (carried over from HW#2) and add information to your Title Page.
PART 1 OF HANDOUT: GENERAL INFORMATION
How HW#3 Relates to HW#1 and HW#2: The Class Project
The Core Article for HW#1 examined whether independent and interdependent self-construal were related to (i.e., predictive of) the fear of missing out, or FoMO. Based on that article, our Class Project examines relations between students’ characteristics and FoMO. As part of HW#2 you and your classmates developed a survey to measure characteristics that you hypothesized to be related to FoMO. The class took the survey (i.e., served as its own participants), and we have analyzed the data and will provide you with basic statistics (e.g., means, correlation coefficients) that you will use to interpret the results. For HW#2 you wrote the first part — the introduction (including your hypothesis) — of your Class Project report. For HW#3 you will finish your report by writing the following sections: Method, Results, and Discussion. Your HW#3 report will end with your References section carried over from HW#2, but correcting any errors (e.g., APA style) that you may have made in HW#2. You will add these sections to the introduction you wrote for HW#2 and turn in a complete report.
Overview of HW#3
In Homework #3 you will complete your research project and paper. We’ll provide you with an Excel file based on the responses to the class survey. This file will show you the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of each item asked on the survey, as well as the Pearson’s r correlation between each item on the survey and the outcome variable of this project: FoMO. In HW#3 you will present the findings for a)three variables — independent and interdependent self-construal, and FoMo — that we included to replicate the original Core Article as possible predictors of FoMO, and b) the findings for one new variable (i.e., a proposed new predictor of FoMO) that was the focus of your hypothesis in HW#2 (or, if your variable wasn’t included in the class survey, another variable from the survey that you can now choose).
You will write the methods, results, and discussion sections of your class project report.
You also will modify the Title page that you wrote for HW#2 by adding a list of the variables that are discussed in your report. To create a complete report, you’ll add the new Title Page, Method section, Results section, and Discussion section to the “introduction section” that you wrote and submitted for HW#2. You’ll end your report with a “References” section. These will be the same references that you listed in HW#2 (unless you were missing some references, in which case you would add them). However, only the new sections (and possibly the References, as we explain in Part 5 of this handout) will be graded as “HW#3.”Your “introduction section” from HW#2 will not be graded again. In your final submission, you should combine all the sections into one document that consists of an entire, complete research report.
Accessing the Survey Items and Results
You will need to access two documents to complete this assignment; these documents will be shown to you in labs on 2/13. These documents can be accessed on our Canvas website by clicking the pink colored “How to Access the Class Project Survey Items & Results” tile on our home page:
- The Microsoft Excel spreadsheet with all of the descriptive statistics for the survey items and their correlations with FoMO, and a legend that will enable you to find the items from your specific discussion section.
- The Canvas quiz that includes the entire survey along with the scales used for each question.
IMPORTANT: Frequently Asked Question (FAQ): “What if the new variable I proposed in Homework #2 didn’t get included in the final set of 8 items my quiz section developed?”
ANSWER: First, check whether any other quiz section developed an item that measures the same “new variable” you chose for Homework #2. If another section did, you can use that item for this part of Homework #3. Second, if that doesn’t work, then either a) select a similar item from another discussion section if available, or b) select 1 of the 8 items that your discussion section developed. For either a) or b), when you submit your final paper, on the Title Page you will need to let us know what variable you have selected as your “revised new variable” and you will need to provide a brief, new hypothesis. You will do this at the bottom of the Title Page by writing down the Item Number (i.e., item #) from the discussion section survey item you are using (as all students will do), but you will add the words “Replacement New Variable” after the item number, followed by a new hypothesis in two sentences (see the Sample Title Page document). You do not have to do any further work: This information lets us know that your original “new variable” did not appear on the survey, tells us what your revised variable and revised hypothesis are. We need this information so that we will have the proper context in which to evaluate the rest of your paper. For your new hypothesis, do not do a literature search. Just state whether you expect your new variable to be positively or negatively correlated with FoMO, and then add a second sentence describing this expected outcome “in plain English.”
Homework #3: Due Date & Lateness Deductions: Late assignments lose 1 point if turned in after 5pm but before midnight on Thursday, 2/27; 2 points if turned in on Friday 2/28 before 5pm; 4 points if turned in by5pm on Saturday 2/29; 6 points if turned in by 5pm on Sunday 3/1; 7 points if turned in by 5pm on Monday 3/2; 8 points if turned in on Tuesday 3/3 by 5pm; 9 points if turned in by 5pm on Wednesday 3/4; and 10 points if turned in on Thursday 3/5 by 5pm. Assignments will not be accepted after 5pm on 3/5.
Submitting HW #3: We will only accept assignments submitted on Canvas. Copies placed in instructor/TA mailboxes or sent via e-mail are not accepted.
PART 2 OF HANDOUT: THE METHOD SECTION OF YOUR REPORT
In addition to FoMO, Dogan (2019) considered two other variables: independent and interdependent self-construal. These two variables, plus FoMO, are the three “Core Variables” for your class project report. The items developed by the class, including the item used in your hypothesis in HW#2, represent the “New Variables.” [Note: The survey also included an item about your amount of social media use, and about general worry (item 7 and item 8).
Do not include these items in your class project report.]
Describe exactly how the class project study was conducted.Include subheadings for Participants, Measures, and Procedure. If you have any citations, use APA style. Your method section should include the following information.
- Participants: Who were they, how many participated, and how were they “recruited” for the study? Did participants receive any inducement (e.g., credit) for participating?
- Measures: In about 2 to 4 sentences, first describe the process by which items for the Class Project Survey were developed. At an appropriate point in your description, include the following statement (you have permission to use the following sentence directly in your paper; don’t use the quotation marks): “FoMO, along with the independent and interdependent self-construal Core Variables included in the class project, were assessed using shortened versions of the measures used in the original study (see Dogan 2019).”
- Core Variables. Describe the specific survey items used to assess the three Core Variables (see Item 1 through item 6 on the class project survey).
FoMO/self construal: Special Note. Item 1 and Item 2 in the survey were used to measure FoMO, Items 3 and 4 were used to measure independent self-construal and Items 5 and 6 were used to measure interdependent self-construal. The responses from each set of two items were added together to create a single “Score” for each variable (i.e., a FoMO score, independent self-construal score, and interdependent self-construal score) for each participant. Describe the two items that contributed to each score, state that they used the same rating scale, and then describe the scale. Then tell the reader that the ratings from those two items were added to create a single score for each variable. Later, when you report the results for these three Core variables, be sure to use the statistics presented in the “Score” column; do not report the statistics for the individual items used to generate these composite scores. Basically, here in the Method section you are telling the reader that you used two separate items to create a single FoMO score, and that you did the same thing to create a single score for independent self-construal and single score for interdependent self-construal. From this point forward, in your Results and Discussion sections, when you refer to FoMO, and to independent and dependent self-construal, you’ll be focusing only on each variable’s single score.
- Your New Variable. Describe the item used in the survey to measure the New Variable that is the focus of your project report. If the New Variable you wrote about in HW#2 was not measured in the survey, you will need to pick one item from the survey (from among Item 9 to Item 72) and make this item the focus of your HW#3 report. If you are making this switch, you will use the Title Page to let us know (see the Sample Title Page document).
- How to Describe the Items Used to Measure the Core Variables and Your New Variable. For each item that used a rating scale, you should first report the specific wording, placed within quotation marks, and then provide details about the rating scale. Indicate how many “points” the rating scale had (e.g., a 5-point rating scale, a 7-point rating scale) and what the “anchors” (the written words at the two end points) of the rating scale were. The item and the anchors should be placed in quotes, but you do not need to put a citation or page number. HERE IS AN EXAMPLE, using an item and rating scale that are not from our class project:
- Core Variables. Describe the specific survey items used to assess the three Core Variables (see Item 1 through item 6 on the class project survey).
Thrill seeking was measured by the item “How often do you like to engage in
recreational activities in which there is a risk of serious injury?”, using a 5-point rating scale that ranged from “1 = Never” to “5 = Very often.”
If an item did not use a rating scale, and instead asked participants to fill in a number, then you can simply state that to measure the variable, participants filled in a response to an “open-ended item,” then describe that item, using quotation marks. HERE IS AN EXAMPLE, using an item not from the class project:
Monthly ice cream consumption was measured using the open-ended item, “In general, how many times per month do you eat ice cream.”
- Procedure: Describe the procedure that participants used to take the survey. If participants did not want to respond to an item, were they given this option? [Note: this subsection does not include the procedures that you used in discussion sections to develop the survey items. You already should have discussed that in the subsection on “Measures.”
PART 3 OF HANDOUT: REPORTING THE RESULTS.
SIMPLE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND CORRELATIONS
Analysis Part 1: Partial Replication of Dogan (2019).
Dogan (2019) reported that interdependent self-construal was positively associated with FoMO.
First Short Paragraph (2 to 4 sentences): FoMO (FoMO score) On average, how much FoMO is experienced by participants? Remember, you are using the single score for FoMO that combines items 1 + item 2. So when you interpret the results, keep in mind that the combined FoMO score is no longer represented by a single 7-point scale; scores can range from a low value of “2” to a high value of “14,” and “8” would be the middle value of the “combined” scale. Tell the reader about this by using the statistics we’ve provided– the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation — but don’t just say “For fear of missing out…” and report the statistics. Pretend that your reader does not know what a “mean,” “median,” and “mode” are, so use those statistics (just these measures of central tendency) to say something in narrative form (i.e., “in plain English”) about the FoMO of students in our class.
Second Short Paragraph (2 to 4 sentences): Find and report the mean and standard deviation for these two Core Variables: independent self-construal (i.e., the independent self-construal score), and interdependent self-construal (i.e., the interdependent self-construal score). For these items, you do not need to report the median or mode or explain the statistics “in plain English,” as you did for FoMO.
Third Short Paragraph [4-8 sentences]: Correlation of FoMO with Independent Self-Construal and Interdependent Self-Construal. In this paragraph you should:
- Find and report the correlation (strength, direction, level of statistical significance) between independent self-construal and FoMO, and interdependent self-construal and FoMO. You will find the strength and direction of each correlation in the Class Project Excel spreadsheet we have provided. To determine whether that correlation value is “statistically significant” or “not statistically significant,” you will need to use the Table provided below in this Handout. Remember, as with FoMO, for each self-construal variable, you are using the statistics presented in the Excel column for the (combined) score for that variable, not for the two individual items used to create each score.
- As you report each correlation, if that correlation is statistically significant, then you should add one additional sentence that describes the correlation “in plain English.” In other words, for each statistically significant correlation, describe whether higher (or lower) scores on the Core Variable are associated with more or less FoMO. If a correlation is not statistically significant, then add one sentence to explain what that means in “plain English.”
Analysis Part 2: Your “New Variable” Analysis [NOTE: Do not create subtitles for the Part 1 and Part 2 of your analyses, but you should present the results for the Core Variables first, and then the results for your New Variable.]
This part of the analysis involves two variables: Your New Variable from the class survey, and FoMO.
- Determine whether the New Variable you proposed to examine in HW#2 was included in the set of items that your own discussion section developed. You may find that the item did not use the exact wording or rating scale that you ideally would have wanted, but that it captures the essence of the variable that you were interested in. If so, use it; you’re in good shape.
- If your New Variable is not among the items from your discussion section, see whether another discussion section developed an item that captures your variable. If so, use it.
- If none of the survey items reflect your original New Variable, then choose an item developed by your discussion section and make that your New Variable.
- VERY IMPORTANT: WHAT TO DO IF YOUR NEW VARIABLE HAS CHANGED: If the final paragraph that you wrote for Homework #2 no longer properly describes the new variable you are analyzing and/or the hypothesis you are now testing, then when you submit your final paper you will need to include information on your Title Page describing the alternative variable that you will be analyzing, as well as two sentences that state your new hypothesis (see the Sample Title Page for an example). WE WILL NOT REGRADE YOUR INTRODUCTION AND YOU DO NOT HAVE TO DO A NEW LITERATURE SEARCH TO FIND NEW RESEARCH ARTICLES. However, for proper context, when we grade your Method, Results, and Discussion sections, we need to know your “replacement” new variable and “replacement”
- Report the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for your New Variable.
- Report the correlation (strength, direction, level of statistical significance) between your New Variable and FoMO. Then describe the nature of the correlation in one additional sentence, “in plain English.” Even if your correlation is not statistically significant, explain what that means “in plain English.”
IMPORTANT: Report statistics in APA style. We’lll post a handout or slides about how to do this.
NOTE: Statistical Significance: The descriptive statistics and correlations that you will be reporting in your paper are based on the responses of about 190 students. [The sample size varies, depending on how many students, if any, chose not to respond to a particular survey item. We will ignore sample size variation in our class project reports]. For a sample of 190 participants, the absolute value of a correlation needs to be .15 or higher to be considered “statistically significant.” Use the criteria in the table below to determine how to describe the strength of the correlation. Thus, all weak, moderate, or strong correlations are considered to be statistically significant (p < .05).
|Correlation Magnitude||Negative r Values||Positive r values|
|Not statistically significant||-.14 to .00||.00 to .14|
|weak||-.29 to -.15||.15 to .29|
|moderate||-.49 to -.30||.30 to .49|
|strong||-1.00 to -.50||.50 to 1.00|
PART 4 OF HANDOUT: DISCUSSING THE RESULTS.
Discussion Section: Discuss the key findings of your class project.
- In terms of whether FoMO was associated with self-construals, what findings from Dogan’s (2019) study were replicated in the class project, and what findings failed to replicate?
- What was the key correlational finding of your “new variable” analysis? Although you described this in your Results section, in the Discussion section you should repeat this key finding — but do not report any statistics again. If you obtained a statistically significant correlation, discuss its importance or speculate on possible causal factors (but be sure to label causality comments as speculation). If you did not obtain a statistically significant correlation, speculate on why a relation between the two variables might not exist.
- Discuss either two limitations of the class project, or one limitation and one implication. Use APA style for any citations that appear in your discussion section.
PART 5 OF HANDOUT: STRUCTURE, FORMAT, GRADING, HELP
STRUCTURE OF YOUR ASSIGNMENT
- Modify your Title Page from HW#2. In the lower left portion of the title page, add a subheading for “Variables in My Class Project” and below that, list each variable you are examining (FoMO, Independent self-construal, Interdependent self-construal, and lastly, your NEW variable). For FoMO, independent self-construal, and interdependent self-construal, list the name of the variable first and then next to it, in parentheses, state “(combined score; item X + item Y)” where X and Y are the two items used to create that score. Example, for FoMO: FoMO (combined score, item 1 + item 2). The “item numbers” are on the Excel file we provide to you). For your NEW Variable, list its survey item number first and then the name of the variable. Hypothetical example: Item 99: Monthly ice cream consumed.
Detailed Example: See the Sample Title Page we will provide on the course website:
Home Page > Homework Assignments > Homlework #3 > Sample Title Page
IMPORTANT: If your “New Variable” is different from the one you initially proposed, you SHOULD change the title of your paper to reflect this change. When you list its Item Number write “Replacement New Variable” and, below it, you should also include a new hypothesis, as described previously.
2) Introduction Section from Homework #2: Temporarily remove and save the “References” section from your Homework #2 paper (you’ll paste it back in at the end of your Homework #3 paper) and then write your Homework #3 paper starting directly where the introduction section of your Homework #2 paper left off. In other words, if your introduction section did not end at the very bottom of the page, then don’t skip to the next page to start your Method section. Put the title “Method” one line below the end of the introduction and start your new writing on the line below.
3) Method Section: Describe exactly how the class project study was conducted. Include subheadings for participants, measures, and procedure. Use APA style for any citations.
4) Results Section: Report the descriptive statistics and correlations as described in PART 3 of this handout. Use APA style for reporting statistics.
5) Discussion Section: As described in PART 4 of this handout, discuss the key findings of the class project study. This includes discussing whether this study replicated the findings of Dogan (2019), whether your hypothesis was supported, your speculation about why it was or was not supported, and discussion of either two limitations of the class project study, or one limitation plus one implication.
6) References Page: This is a separate page and it should list your references in alphabetical order. Unless you have added any new citations to your Homework #3 paper (versus HW #2), your reference list will be the same as that for Homework #2. However, IF prior to submitting your HW#3 paper we have provided you with Homework #2 feedback about whether you used APA style correctly in your References, then you should correct any Reference errors you had in Homework #2. If you do add any new citations to Homework #3, then you will need to add a reference for each one. Again, your References section should use APA style and references should be in proper alphabetical order according to APA style.
FORMATTING YOUR REPORT
- Page Formatting: DOUBLE-SPACED, Font Size 12. Margins should be 1.25″ at the top, bottom, left and right. (NO FUDGING on margins or using 1.5 line spacing. You will lose points). Font = Times New Roman, or if not available, choose Palatino or Bookman.
- Every page of your paper should have a header. Your header should contain your Last Name, First Name Initial, Psych 209, Section XX, 5 spaces, page number (Title Page = 1). Example: Bonaparte, N., Psych 209, Section AG 1
- Length: Your report should be 6-8 pages long, including the Title Page and References:
- Title page (1 page)
- Introduction from HW#2 (including your hypothesis paragraph from HW#2 (max 2.5 pages)
- Method, Results, Discussion sections: 2.5 to 4 pages total
- References: separate page: length will be roughly 0.5 pages)
- Final papers greater than 8 pages total will lose points
OUR GRADING OF YOUR REPORT (26 Total Points)
3 points: APA style: Proper APA format for the results (e.g., statistics presented in Results section), and any citations in the methods or discussion sections of your paper; proper APA style headings of each section. Prior to the HW#3 due date (at least 36 hours before the due date), if we are able to provide you with feedback about whether your References in Homework #2 were properly formatted using APA style, then you need to incorporate any corrections into your references and we will grade the references again for conformity to APA style. If we are not able to provide you with timely feedback about your references from HW#2, then we will not grade the HW#3 references for APA style.
6 points: Method Section: quality and clarity; including all required aspects as described by the assignment instructions
6 points: Results Section: quality and clarity; accuracy and completeness of statistics
6 points: Discussion Section: quality and clarity; including all required aspects as described by the assignment instructions
3 points: Proper organization: information is discussed within its proper section (e.g., you don’t present results in the Method section) and the order of sections is correct (Note: poor organization may reduce the clarity of the information presented, which means that additional points will be lost.)
2 points: Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. (Note: If grammar, spelling, and/or punctuation are so bad that they interfere with the clarity of the information presented, then obviously, points will be lost for this as well).
IF YOU NEED HELP
Psychology Writing Center: Writing Center staff can discuss APA style, help you organize your ideas, and give you feedback on the clarity of your rough draft and citations. Use their website to schedule an appointment. To access their website, go to our course website, click the “Help &Resources” link, and then click the “Psychology Writing Center” link. The Writing Center is located in the Chemistry Library Building, Room 160. They also have a number of handouts that you may find useful.
Odegaard Writing & Research Center (OWRC): The OWRC offers free, one-to-one, 45-minute tutoring sessions for students on any writing or research project. OWRC staff collaborate with writers at any stage of the writing and research process. To access their website, go to our course website, click the “Help & Resources” link, and then click the “Odegaard Writing & Research Center” link, or visit their office on the 1st floor of OUGL (Odegaard Undergraduate Library).
209 Office Hours: We can answer questions about elements of a good research report and the homework assignment itself. Depending on how many students stop by, we may be able to give you general feedback on your draft or a portion of it, but we cannot “pregrade” it. Students who have basic questions about writing or questions about “regular” course material, will be given priority over students seeking draft reviews. The Writing Center is the best bet for reviewing a draft.
NOTE: We encourage you to discuss the article and assignment with others. However, the writing must be your own. Plagiarizing content from the article, fellow students, or other sources, or not doing your own writing, constitutes academic dishonesty and will result in a grade of zero for this assignment.