Influence of Community Pharmacists׳ Attitudes on Antibiotic Dispensing Behavior: A Cross-sectional Study in Portugal

  1. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxylocal.library.nova.edu/pubmed/31835961
  2. https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(19)30071-9/fulltext
  1. Influence of Community Pharmacists׳ Attitudes on Antibiotic Dispensing Behavior: A Cross-sectional Study in Portugal
  2. https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxylocal.library.nova.edu/science/article/pii/S0149291814007425

We found 3 studies that met the inclusion criteria. These studies were summarized in Table 1 below. SUMMARY INFORMATION OF THE STUDIES WE USED GOES HERE

The study by Seipel et al. set out to evaluate the level of knowledge of the general population in regard to the correct use of antibiotics. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey and provided to individuals who met the eligibility criteria of age (at least 18 years old) and language skills (oral and written English proficiency).  In their study White et al. analyzed the appropriateness of prescription antibiotic use in the outpatient setting over a 4 month period from June 2017 to September 2017.  The determination of appropriateness was based on whether or not the antimicrobial agent chosen for treatment was part of the first-line option(s) according to present prescription medication guidelines. The study Roque et al., 2015 evaluates community pharmacists’ attitudes toward and knowledge of antibiotics and microbial resistance. They accounted for exceptions to this definition of appropriateness such as in cases where the first line option was not viable due to prior treatment failure or adverse drug reactions, under such conditions using a non-first-line agent would not be deemed inappropriate.

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Table 1. Description of Included Studies
Author, Publication Year Study Design Sample Size Study characteristics
Seipel et al., 2019 Cross-sectional survey 347 White (91.6%), female (58.2%), and aged 60 years or older (59.1%)
White et al., 2019 Prospective observational cohort 1,063 Study participants were veterans, male (90%), white (86%), 62 years old (average)
Roque et al., 2015 Cross-sectional survey 1197 Study participants were community pharmacist, female (80.6 %) and Years of experience in community pharmacy ≥ 5 years (65%)

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We have included a summary of the outcomes measured in the studies below in Table 2. SUMMARY OF THE INFORMATION ABOUT OUTCOMES GOES HERE AS WELL AS MORE DETAILED INFO

Table 2. Study Outcomes
Author, Publication Year Pharmacy Intervention Outcome Opportunity
Seipel et al., 2019 Survey administration Respondents with less than high school education are less informed in regards to the role of antibiotics Patient education
White et al., 2019 Identification of patients who were prescribed antibiotics Antibiotics were inappropriately prescribed in 40% of patients. Patient/provider

education

Roque et al., 2015 Survey administration Antibiotic dispensing may be influenced by pharmacists’ point of view in general, and by complacency about patients, the alleged responsibility of others, and precaution or fear in particular. Educational intervention to patients and providers

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CONTINUE TALKING ABOUT RESULTS AND OFFER COMPARISON, TALK ABOUT THE IMPLICATION OF PHARMACY AS IT REGARDS TO OUR THEME

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