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Vivian, Hi, this is an interesting essay on current interventions that address poverty in Ireland. However, the assignment requires you to discuss Kant or Swift. You need to use Swift to create a point of departure for your discuss of current attempts to address poverty by introducing Swift’s essay and the genre of satire. You need to explain he was addressing the same issue in the 1700s. You need to summarize the narrator’s proposal and discuss the author’s aims. You should analyze some key passages of his text. Then, transition to current solutions of poverty in Ireland. So, you will have a complex thesis. One claim about Swift’s text and one about better solutions to poverty in recent years. If I were to grade your essay, the main issue is that you should use MLA style citation. IT is a strong essay. But, without a longer intro and discussion of Swift’s text that transitions into the draft you have, the assignment does not meet the requirements and should not get a passing grade until it is revised. Can you develop your intro to introduce and discuss Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”? Perhaps, add 2-3 paragraphs on Swift’s text Then, keep the rest of the paper the same but edit the citation to use MLA. You just need to cover the Swift text in a few paragraphs. Help with MLA in text citation and style guide: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_and_style_guide.html Source on Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”: https://www.britannica.com/topic/A-Modest-Proposal
Addressing Child Poverty in Ireland
Addressing Child Poverty in Ireland
The research presents a social challenge that affects children from humble backgrounds in Ireland. According to Swift, children from financially unstable families in Ireland experience social and economic problems that affect their overall wellness. According to Swift (2019), most of these children are beggars; hence, they live sub-standard lifestyles. Swift (2019) goes further and asserts that such children are helpless; as they work at tender ages to earn a living. Notably, parents should take care of their children; they should feed them and protect them from any form of aggression. However, in Ireland, low-income families are unable to meet these obligations due to financial constraints (Swift, 2019). In this regard, it is ideal to examine the ways to prevent poor children from being a burden to the nation and parents.
The Impact of Poverty on Educational Outcomes for Children
Poverty affects the wellbeing of children significantly, as it limits their access to crucial resources that disrupt their normal development. Establishing children’s homes in Ireland will allow children to access essential resources required for their growth and development. Ferguson, Bovaird, and Mueller highlight the impact of poverty on the educational outcomes for children. Children have to be prepared adequately before joining the school as it increases their performance in school (Ferguson, Bovaird & Mueller, 2007). School readiness considers various factors such as the physical well being of the child, age-appropriate general knowledge, and cognitive skills. According to Ferguson, Bovaird, and Mueller, poverty reduces a child’s readiness for school through poor health, miserable home life, and poor neighbor as most poor people live in deplorable conditions (2007). The authors assert that poverty adversely affects the cognitive development, academic achievement, and behavior of children. It creates emotional instability in children because of the stressful lifestyle children are exposed to at an early age.
Taking early interventions plays an instrumental role in averting promoting healthy child development. Ireland’s primary strategy is to establish children’s homes to increase the accessibility of social amenities to the children. Ferguson, Bovaird, and Mueller have highlighted some interventions implemented by the Canadian government to improve the accessibility of education among children from humble backgrounds (2007). The government should implement support intervention programs in the children’s homes, especially those that support the academic, social, and community wellbeing of the children. The government should improve the quality of education in public schools to breach the gap between the quality of education children from well up families receive and that which children from poor backgrounds receive (Ferguson, Bovaird & Mueller, 2007). The Ireland government can hold a health sensitization campaign to enlighten the parents from low-income families on child development, especially on the age-appropriate needs and activities for children. Doing so will ensure children have healthy development.
Improving Mental Health Access for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting.
Poverty affects the mental health of children, as it increases their vulnerability to mental health disorders. Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, and Lewin have brought out intuitive details on the connection between poverty and compromised mental health (2017). They have also touched on the hindrance to care among children and families living in poverty. The authors have also featured some mental health delivery models and interventions that can be applied to advance mental health. According to Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, and Lewin (2017), the significant factors affecting children’s development and social functioning are classified into three, namely individual child level, relational factors, and institutional factors. At the individual level, the child struggles with physiologic responses to stress, which increases with the exposure of the child to increased poverty levels. The source of stress in children living in poverty is food insecurity, poor living conditions, and challenges accessing education (Hodgkinson et al., 2017). The stressors affect parents adversely, increasing their likelihood of drug and substance abuse, which significantly reduces positive parenting exercise in children.
The authors have proven that children living in deplorable conditions require adequate mental healthcare to improve their quality of life. Ireland’s move to place the children in children homes will play a significant role in reducing mental health issues in the children, as they will improve the living conditions of the children. The authors have suggested some strategies that can be applied to boost the wellbeing of the children while at the children homes. The Ireland government should introduce integrated behavioral healthcare in the children homes to improve on the mental wellbeing of the children (Hodgkinson et al., 2017). The managers of the facilities should introduce routine universal developmental and mental health screening among the children to ascertain the mental health state of the children. The screening will play a significant role in reducing the disparities in the mental health of the children. The children’s home managers should establish effective collaboration with primary care clinicians and mental health professionals to provide the children with a smooth transition to the children’s home (Hodgkinson et al., 2017). Application of the strategies in Ireland will play an instrumental role in boosting the wellbeing of children from a poor background in the country.
Children In Poverty: Can Public Policy Alleviate The Consequences?
Child poverty appears to be a significant problem in most developed nations. It can be attributed to the large gap between the rich and the poor. Huston, in his article “Children in Poverty,” highlights the various early childhood interventions and employments based interventions that can be applied to reduce poverty and its effects. One of the significant consequences of poverty is a social exclusion, as the persons living in poverty have a myriad of problems. According to Huston (2011), children born in poverty-stricken families are likely to develop early development problems, poor school readiness, and various behavioral issues. The United States and the United Kingdom have been at the forefront to reduce child poverty. They are developing large-scale national programs aimed at improving the health status of children from deprived backgrounds (Huston, 2011). The interventions mainly involve parent education and pre-school programs for children. High unemployment rates in most countries are contributing to an increase in poverty rates. For this, the Ireland government has opted to establish children homes for the children as it solves the unemployment problem in the country. According to Huston (2011), most governments are working collaboratively with their citizens to reduce poverty rates in their countries. In light of the above, child poverty is a social problem that requires a multi-disciplinary approach to solve.
In summary, the establishment of children homes in Ireland will play an instrumental role in improving the lifestyle of children living in poverty. However, the government needs to implements various interventions to ensure the children have an effective transition to ensure they stay in the children homes. The interventions include assessing the children readiness for school, improving the mental health of the children, and increasing awareness of the parents on effective parenting to prevent the development of psychological issues in children.
Ferguson, H.B., Bovaird, S. & Mueller, M.P. (2007). The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children. Paediatric Child Health. 12(8); 701-706
Hodgkinson, S. Godoy, L., Beers, L.S. & Lewin, A. (2017). Improving Mental Health Access for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting. Pediatrics. 139(1)
Huston, A. (2011). Children in Poverty: Can public policy alleviate the consequences? Family Matters. 2011(87).
Swift, J. (2019). A modest proposal for preventing the children of poor people in Ireland from being a burden to their parents or country, and for making them beneficial to the public. Tome Press.
A Modest Proposal
For preventing the children of poor people in Ireland,
from being a burden on their parents or country,
and for making them beneficial to the publick.
by Dr. Jonathan Swift
It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town, or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads, and cabbin-doors crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags, and importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers, instead of being able to work for their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in stroling to beg sustenance for their helpless infants who, as they grow up, either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country, to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes.
I think it is agreed by all parties, that this prodigious number of children in the arms, or on the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and frequently of their fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom, a very great additional grievance; and therefore whoever could find out a fair, cheap and easy method of making these children sound and useful members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the publick, as to have his statue set up for a preserver of the nation.
But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of professed beggars: it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them, as those who demand our charity in the streets.
As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years upon this important subject, and maturely weighed the several schemes of our projectors, I have always found them grossly mistaken in their computation. It is true, a child just dropt from its dam, may be supported by her milk, for a solar year, with little other nourishment: at most not above the value of two shillings, which the mother may certainly get, or the value in scraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in such a manner, as, instead of being a charge upon their parents, or the parish, or wanting food and raiment for the rest of their lives, they shall, on the contrary, contribute to the feeding, and partly to the clothing of many thousands.
There is likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary abortions, and that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too frequent among us, sacrificing the poor innocent babes, I doubt, more to avoid the expence than the shame, which would move tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast.
The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of these I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple, whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couple, who are able to maintain their own children, (although I apprehend there cannot be so many under the present distresses of the kingdom) but this being granted, there will remain a hundred and seventy thousand breeders. I again subtract fifty thousand, for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the year. There only remain a hundred and twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. The question therefore is, How this number shall be reared and provided for? which, as I have already said, under the present situation of affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; they neither build houses, (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by stealing till they arrive at six years old; except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the rudiments much earlier; during which time they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers; as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me, that he never knew above one or two instances under the age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for the quickest proficiency in that art.
I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl, before twelve years old, is no saleable commodity, and even when they come to this age, they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and half a crown at most, on the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriments and rags having been at least four times that value.
I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least objection.
I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricasee, or a ragoust.
I do therefore humbly offer it to publick consideration, that of the hundred and twenty thousand children, already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof only one fourth part to be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle, or swine, and my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore, one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in sale to the persons of quality and fortune, through the kingdom, always advising the mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump, and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt, will be very good boiled on the fourth day, especially in winter.
I have reckoned upon a medium, that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, encreaseth to 28 pounds.
I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.
Infant’s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March, and a little before and after; for we are told by a grave author, an eminent French physician, that fish being a prolifick dyet, there are more children born in Roman Catholick countries about nine months after Lent, than at any other season; therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of Popish infants, is at least three to one in this kingdom, and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the number of Papists among us.
I have already computed the charge of nursing a beggar’s child (in which list I reckon all cottagers, labourers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two shillings per annum, rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular friend, or his own family to dine with him. Thus the squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants, the mother will have eight shillings neat profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child.
Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen.
As to our City of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose, in the most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I rather recommend buying the children alive, and dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.
A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was lately pleased in discoursing on this matter, to offer a refinement upon my scheme. He said, that many gentlemen of this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well supplied by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years of age, nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in every county being now ready to starve for want of work and service: and these to be disposed of by their parents if alive, or otherwise by their nearest relations. But with due deference to so excellent a friend, and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of our schoolboys, by continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable, and to fatten them would not answer the charge. Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission, be a loss to the publick, because they soon would become breeders themselves: and besides, it is not improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice, (although indeed very unjustly) as a little bordering upon cruelty, which, I confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against any project, how well soever intended.
But in order to justify my friend, he confessed, that this expedient was put into his head by the famous Psalmanaazor, a native of the island Formosa, who came from thence to London, above twenty years ago, and in conversation told my friend, that in his country, when any young person happened to be put to death, the executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality, as a prime dainty; and that, in his time, the body of a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to poison the Emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty’s prime minister of state, and other great mandarins of the court in joints from the gibbet, at four hundred crowns. Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their fortunes, cannot stir abroad without a chair, and appear at a playhouse and assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for, the kingdom would not be the worse.
Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed; and I have been desired to employ my thoughts what course may be taken, to ease the nation of so grievous an incumbrance. But I am not in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known, that they are every day dying, and rotting, by cold and famine, and filth, and vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. And as to the young labourers, they are now in almost as hopeful a condition. They cannot get work, and consequently pine away from want of nourishment, to a degree, that if at any time they are accidentally hired to common labour, they have not strength to perform it, and thus the country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to come.
I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as of the highest importance.
For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of Papists, with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation, as well as our most dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good Protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate.
Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by law may be made liable to a distress, and help to pay their landlord’s rent, their corn and cattle being already seized, and money a thing unknown.
Thirdly, Whereas the maintainance of a hundred thousand children, from two years old, and upwards, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a piece per annum, the nation’s stock will be thereby encreased fifty thousand pounds per annum, besides the profit of a new dish, introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of fortune in the kingdom, who have any refinement in taste. And the money will circulate among our selves, the goods being entirely of our own growth and manufacture.
Fourthly, The constant breeders, besides the gain of eight shillings sterling per annum by the sale of their children, will be rid of the charge of maintaining them after the first year.
Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns, where the vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to perfection; and consequently have their houses frequented by all the fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating; and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please.
Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either encouraged by rewards, or enforced by laws and penalties. It would encrease the care and tenderness of mothers towards their children, when they were sure of a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the publick, to their annual profit instead of expence. We should soon see an honest emulation among the married women, which of them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives, during the time of their pregnancy, as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf, or sows when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage.
Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the addition of some thousand carcasses in our exportation of barrel’d beef: the propagation of swine’s flesh, and improvement in the art of making good bacon, so much wanted among us by the great destruction of pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to a well grown, fat yearling child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a Lord Mayor’s feast, or any other publick entertainment. But this, and many others, I omit, being studious of brevity.
Supposing that one thousand families in this city, would be constant customers for infants flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings, particularly at weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand carcasses; and the rest of the kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand.
I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby much lessened in the kingdom. This I freely own, and was indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire the reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for this one individual Kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or, I think, ever can be upon Earth. Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: Of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: Of using neither clothes, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: Of utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: Of curing the expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: Of introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temperance: Of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: Of quitting our animosities and factions, nor acting any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: Of being a little cautious not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: Of teaching landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry, and skill into our shopkeepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our native goods, would immediately unite to cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure, and the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just dealing, though often and earnestly invited to it.
Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, till he hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and sincere attempt to put them into practice.
But, as to myself, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length utterly despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon this proposal, which, as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expence and little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in disobliging England. For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, and flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it.
After all, I am not so violently bent upon my own opinion, as to reject any offer, proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and offering a better, I desire the author or authors will be pleased maturely to consider two points. First, As things now stand, how they will be able to find food and raiment for a hundred thousand useless mouths and backs. And secondly, There being a round million of creatures in humane figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common stock, would leave them in debt two million of pounds sterling, adding those who are beggars by profession, to the bulk of farmers, cottagers and labourers, with their wives and children, who are beggars in effect; I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food at a year old, in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor clothes to cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of intailing the like, or greater miseries, upon their breed for ever.
I profess in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavouring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the publick good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich. I have no children, by which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing.