COMM 1131 Boston University Relational Communication Essay You will write one short paper (5–6 pages, double-spaced) applying a theoretical concept from bo

COMM 1131 Boston University Relational Communication Essay You will write one short paper (5–6 pages, double-spaced) applying a theoretical concept from book which I will give you.please read the instruction from the PDF documents and use the concept from the book COMM 1131, Sex, Relationships, and Communication
Short paper assignment
200 points
In a short paper (5-ish pages plus a “References” page), you will illustrate two course concepts using two different clips. The
clips must be shorter than three minutes and must be from TV shows or movies – i.e., no videos from social media.
Some of the material we’ve covered in class involves “big” concepts with multiple components. Please do not focus on the
“big” concept. Rather, focus on one component (e.g., the relationship frame from the Communication Theory of Identity). If
you have questions about whether a concept may be too broad, please email me before delving into the assignment.
The purpose of this assignment is for you to learn more about class concepts that you find particularly interesting. This
means that you will need to present information in your paper about the concepts you’ve chosen that goes beyond what was
covered in the lectures and in your textbook. To that end, you will cite at least four scholarly sources (two for each concept;
scholarly sources are books or academic journal articles) that help you expand your knowledge about the concepts you’ve
chosen. You are encouraged to use your textbook, but it will not count as one of your four required sources. You will cite
your sources in APA style.
This is how your paper should be organized:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Brief introduction that states the concepts you have chosen and the clips you will apply them to.
Explanation of concept #1 (two to three paragraphs)
I.
Explain terminology from the concept, discuss what the concept attempts to explain or predict, elucidate how
the concept is useful in analyzing interpersonal relationships.
a. Cite at least 2 sources throughout explanation
Brief overview of the clip you have selected (one paragraph)
I.
Context in which clip occurs
II.
Introduction of characters involved in clip
Connection of concept to clip (about two paragraphs)
I.
How does the clip you’ve selected illustrate the concept you’ve selected? Be specific. Make connections to what
you previously discussed.
II.
Use terminology from the concept
III.
Provide a link to the clip (no longer than three minutes)
Explanation of concept #2 (two to three paragraphs)
I.
Explain terminology from the concept, discuss what the concept attempts to explain or predict, elucidate how
the concept is useful in analyzing interpersonal relationships
a. Cite at least 2 sources throughout explanation
Brief overview of the clip you have selected (one paragraph)
I.
Context in which clip occurs
II.
Introduction of characters involved in clip
Connection of concept to clip (about two paragraphs)
I.
How does the clip you’ve selected illustrate the concept you’ve selected? How does the clip you’ve selected
illustrate the concept you’ve selected? Be specific. Make connections to what you previously discussed.
II.
Use terminology from the concept
III.
Provide a link to the clip (no longer than three minutes)
7. Brief conclusion
8. Works cited page in APA style
Times New Roman font. 12-point size. One-inch margins. Double-spaced. No cover page or abstract needed.
F.A.Q
Q: Where do I find clips?
A: YouTube is a great place to start. Again, please make sure clips are from TV shows or movies.
Q:I don’t know APA style. What do I do?
A: If you google “APA style” you will find a variety of resources. Here’s a good one:
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Q: Where do I find scholarly sources?
A: A good resource is the “Communications and Mass Media Complete” database, which can be found on our library’s
website: (http://library.northeastern.edu/research/resources/a-to-z-index#C). Scroll to find it.
Another is “Academic Search Premier,” which is also on our library’s website:
(http://library.northeastern.edu/research/resources/a-to-z-index#A). Scroll to find it.
Yet another is Google Scholar (http://library.northeastern.edu/research/resources/a-to-z-index#G) Scroll to find it.
Q: What are some examples of concepts I could use?
A: You can use any concept from that is not overly broad (another example: don’t use “non-verbal communication” as a
concept – focus on one element of non-verbal communication, like haptics). Consult your book and notes.
Q: How will you assess this assignment?
A: See the rubric. I will evaluate the degree to which the explanations of your concepts are complete and correct; the degree
to which you use your scholarly sources effectively and consistently; the degree to which you explain your clips; and the
degree to which you correctly, comprehensively, and convincingly connect your concepts to your clips. I will also be looking
for clear and effective writing, proper citations, and a correct works cited page.
Q. What is the biggest issue you see from one semester to the next on this assignment?
A: Two things actually. First, students are often too reliant on quotes. Please don’t just put quote after quote in the paper. To
demonstrate your understanding of the content, you should use your own words throughout the paper and paraphrase
effectively (i.e., copying another’s sentence verbatim except for swapping out a single word isn’t sufficient) Write as if you
were explaining the concepts and ideas to a friend.
The second issue I often see is students not providing sources. It should be clear where ALL the conceptual information in
your paper came from. Please don’t submit paragraph after paragraph without a single citation. Most (if not all) of your
citations will be in your concept explanations.
What Not To Do
People are usually attracted to romantic partners who they perceive as having socially desirable traits like physical beauty,
intelligence, and kindness. However, research suggests that the very traits that lead an individual to form a relationship with
someone may ultimately be what leads that relationship to dissolve. For example, someone may initially be drawn to a
romantic partner because of their sense of humor; however, if they later believe that their partner can never be serious, they
may perceive the relationship as unsalvageable. Fatal attraction may also occur in married couples, as research shows couples
in marriage therapy often identify initial qualities in a partner as sources of current relational problems.
What To Do
People are usually attracted to romantic partners who they perceive as having socially desirable traits like physical beauty,
intelligence, and kindness (Femlee, 1995). However, research suggests that the very traits that lead an individual to form a
relationship with someone may ultimately be what leads that relationship to dissolve (Femlee, 1995). For example, someone
may initially be drawn to a romantic partner because of their sense of humor; however, if they later believe that their partner
can never be serious, they may perceive the relationship as unsalvageable (Guerrero, Anderson, & Afifi, 2017). Fatal
attraction may also occur in married couples, as research shows couples in marriage therapy often identify initial qualities in a
partner as sources of current relational problems (Pines, 1997).
Close Encounters
Fifth Edition
To our daughters—Gabrielle, Kristiana,
Kirsten, Leila, and Rania And to Peter ’s
granddaughter—Elise Our relationships with
them bring us great joy.
Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE
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will become owned by a charitable trust that
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Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore
| Washington DC | Melbourne
Close Encounters
Communication in Relationships
Fifth Edition
Laura K. Guerrero
Arizona State University
Peter A. Andersen
San Diego State University
Walid A. Afifi
University of California,
Santa Barbara
Los Angeles
London
New Delhi
Singapore
Washington DC
Melbourne
Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may
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without permission in writing from the
publisher.
FOR INFORMATION:
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Guerrero, Laura K., author. | Andersen, Peter A.,
author. | Afifi, Walid A., author.
Title: Close encounters : communication in relationships / Laura
K. Guerrero, Arizona State University; Peter A. Andersen, San
Diego State University; Walid A. Afifi, University of California
at Santa Barbara.
Description: Fifth edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE
Publications, Inc., 2017. | Includes bibliographical references
and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016050544 | ISBN 9781506376721 (pbk.
: alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Interpersonal communication.
Classification: LCC BF637.C45 G83 2017 | DDC 153.6—
dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016050544
Printed in the United States of America
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Karen Omer
Development Editor: Anna Villarruel
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Dillard
eLearning Editor: Jennifer Jovin
Production Editor: Kelly DeRosa
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Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd.
Proofreader: Susan Schon
Indexer: Jeanne Busemeyer
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers
Brief Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1 • Conceptualizing
Relational Communication
Chapter 2 • Communicating Identity
Chapter 3 • Drawing People
Together
Chapter 4 • Making Sense of Our
World
Chapter 5 • Changing Relationships
Chapter 6 • Revealing and Hiding
Ourselves
Chapter 7 • Communicating
Closeness
Chapter 8 • Making a Love
Connection
Chapter 9 • Communicating
Sexually
Chapter 10 • Staying Close
Chapter 11 • Coping With Conflict
Chapter 12 • Influencing Each Other
Chapter 13 • Hurting the Ones We
Love
Chapter 14 • Healing the Hurt
Chapter 15 • Ending Relationships
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Authors
Detailed Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1. Conceptualizing
Relational Communication:
Definitions and Principles
The Field of Personal
Relationships: A Brief History
Contributions of
Interpersonal
Communication Research
Contributions of Social
Psychology
Roots in Other Disciplines
Relationships
General Types of
Relationships
Need Fulfillment in Close
Relationships
Relationship Categories
Characteristics
Distinguishing Different
Relationship Types
Principles of Interpersonal
Communication
Verbal and Nonverbal
Messages
Communication as
Inevitable
Interpersonal
Communication Goals
Effectiveness and Shared
Meaning
Content Versus Relational
Information
Symmetry in
Communication
Principles of Relational
Communication
Relationships Emerge
Across Ongoing
Interactions
Relationships
Contextualize Messages
Communication Sends a
Variety of Relational
Messages
Relational Communication
Is Dynamic
Relational Communication
Follows Both Linear and
Nonlinear Patterns
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 2. Communicating Identity:
The Social Self
The Development of Personal
Identity
Defining Identity
Human Nature and Identity
Communication and
Identity
Cultural and Ethnic
Identity
The Image: Creating an
Identity
“Talkin’ ‘Bout Your
Generation”: Millennials
and Generation Z-ers’
Identity
Social Networking and
Identity
Identity, Perception, and
Self-Esteem
Expanding Identity
Principles of Identity
Management
Identity and Hierarchical
Structure
Identity and the LookingGlass Self
Identity and the
Interpretation of Feedback
Identity, Expectations, and
Behavior
Identity and SelfEvaluation
Identity and Goal
Achievement
Identity and Relationships
Communicating Identity to
Others
General Issues in SelfPresentation
“Life Is a Stage”: The
Dramaturgical Perspective
Politeness Theory
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 3. Drawing People
Together: Forces of Social
Attraction
Attraction
Types of Attraction
Fatal Attraction
A Framework for
Understanding Attraction
Personal Qualities
Perceptions of Reward
Value
Expectations
Biological Aspects of
Attraction
Demographic
Characteristics
Personality
Other People’s Qualities
Physical Attractiveness
Interpersonal
Communication Skills
The “Hard-to-Get”
Phenomenon
Qualities of the Pair
Similarity: “Birds of a
Feather Flock Together”
Complementarity:
Sometimes Opposites
Attract
Similarity and
Complementarity in Initial
Versus Committed
Relationships
Qualities of the Physical or
Social Environment
Physical Environment
Proximity
Social Environment
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 4. Making Sense of Our
World: Managing Uncertainty and
Expectancy Violations
Uncertainty
Uncertainty Reduction
Theory: Issues and
Challenges
The Motivation to Reduce
Uncertainty
The Relationship Between
Communication and
Uncertainty
General Strategies for
Reducing Uncertainty
Secret Tests
Predicted Outcome Value
Theory
The Theory of Motivated
Information Management
Relational Turbulence
Theory
Expectancy Violations
Expectancy Violations
Theory
Types of Expectancy
Violations in Close
Relationships
Expectancy Violations and
Uncertainty in Specific
Contexts
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 5. Changing Relationships:
Stages, Turning Points, and
Dialectics
Communication Skills
Relationship Stages
The “Coming Together”
Stages
The “Coming Apart”
Stages
The Ordering and Timing
of Stages
Turning Points
Communication-Based
Turning Points
Activities and Special
Occasions
Events Related to Passion
and Romance
Events Related to
Commitment and
Exclusivity
Changes in Families and
Social Networks
Proximity and Distance
Crisis and Conflict
Perceptual Changes
The Dialectical Perspective
Relational Dialectics
Theory
Dialectical Tensions in
Friendships
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 6. Revealing and Hiding
Ourselves: Self-Disclosure
and Privacy
Self-Disclosure
Dimensions of SelfDisclosure
Self-Disclosure and
Liking
Reciprocity of SelfDisclosure
Risks Associated With
Self-Disclosure
Privacy
Privacy Ownership
Privacy Control
Privacy Turbulence
Influences on Rules for
Privacy Management
Negotiating Privacy in
Relationships: Challenges
and Violations
Topic Avoidance and Secret
Keeping
Topics Commonly
Avoided or Kept Secret
Reasons for Topic
Avoidance and Secret
Keeping
How People Engage in
Topic Avoidance
Topic Avoidance During
Relationship Transitions
Consequences of Topic
Avoidance
Consequences of Secret
Keeping
Consequences of
Revealing Secrets
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 7. Communicating
Closeness: Affection, Immediacy,
and Social Support
Closeness in Relationships
Physical Closeness
Emotional Closeness
Relational Closeness
Communicating Closeness
Affectionate Communication
Affection Exchange
Theory
Communicating Affection
Immediacy Behavior
Verbal Immediacy
Nonverbal Immediacy
Cognitive Valence Theory
Behavior
Perception
Arousal
Cognition
Relational Outcomes
Supportive Communication
The Dual Process Model
of Supportive
Communication
Invisible Support
Person-Centered Messages
Nonverbal Immediacy
Sex Differences in the
Experience and Expression of
Closeness
Perceptions of Closeness
Communication of
Closeness
Preferences for Same-Sex
Versus Cross-Sex
Friendships
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 8. Making a Love
Connection: Styles of Love and
Attachment
What Is Love?
Love Versus Liking
Love as a Triangle
Finding Love and Falling
in Love
Love Styles
Lee’s Love Styles
Ways to Communicate
Love
Attachment Theory
The Propensity for
Forming Attachments
Internal Working Models
and Attachment Styles
Attachment Styles in
Childhood
Attachment Styles in
Adulthood
Attachment and Relational
Satisfaction
Stability and Change in
Attachment Styles Across
the Life Span
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 9. Communicating Sexually:
The Closest Physical Encounter
Sex in Relationships
Sex in Short-Term and
Early Dating Relationships
Sex in Long-Term
Relationships
Sex Differences
Sex in Same-Sex
Relationships
Sexual Attitudes
Developing Sexual
Attitudes and Beliefs
Communication About Sex
Courtship and Flirtation
Communication, Sexual
Satisfaction, and
Relational Satisfaction
Sexual Scripts
Pillow Talk
Sexual Coercion and
Harassment
Sexual Coercion
Sexual Harassment
Communication and Safe Sex
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 10. Staying Close:
Maintaining Relationships
Defining Relational
Maintenance
Behaviors Used to Maintain
Relationships
Prosocial Maintenance
Behaviors
Antisocial Maintenance
Behavior
Modality of Maintenance
Behavior
Strategic and Routine
Maintenance Behaviors
Maintenance Behavior in
Romantic Relationships
Changes in Maintenance
Over the Course of
Romantic Relationships
Maintenance in Gay and
Lesbian Relationships
Maintenance Behavior in SameSex Friendships
Talking Versus Doing
Men and Women Are
From the Same Planet
Maintenance Behavior in
Cross-Sex Friendships
Challenges in Cross-Sex
Friendships
Coping With Romantic
Intent
Keeping Friendships
Platonic
Maintenance Challenges in
Other Relationships
Friends-With-Benefits
Relationships
Long-Distance
Relationships
Cohabiting Relationships
Equity Theory
Principles of Equity
Theory
Reducing Distress in
Inequitable Relationships
Combined Influence of
Benefit-Cost Ratios and
Equity
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 11. Coping With Conflict:
When Relational Partners Disagree
Conflict in Relationships
Defining Conflict
Frequency of Conflict in
Various Relationships
Effects of Conflict on
Relationships
Conflict Styles
Competitive Fighting
Compromising
Collaborating
Indirect Fighting
Avoiding
Yielding
Patterns of Conflict Interaction
Negative Reciprocity
Demand-Withdraw
The Four Horsemen of the
Apocalypse
Accommodation
Explanations for Conflict
Patterns
Emotional Flooding
Attributions
Communication Skill
Deficits
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 12. Influencing Each Other:
Dominance and Power Plays in
Relationships
Defining Power and Related
Terms
Power Principles
Power as a Perception
Power as a Relational
Concept
Power as Resource Based
Power as Having Less to
Lose
Power as Enabling or
Disabling
Power as a Prerogative
Interpersonal Influence Goals
Making Lifestyle Changes
Gaining Assistance
Sharing Activities
Initiating Sexual Activity
Changing Political
Attitudes
Giving Health Advice
Changing Relationships
Verbal Power Ploys
Verbal Influence Strategies
Relational Control Moves:
One-Ups and One-Downs
Powerful and Powerless
Speech
Nonverbal Positions of Power
Physical Appearance
Spatial Behavior
Eye Behavior
Body Movements
Touch
The Voice
Time
Artifacts
Power and Influence in
Families
Parent and Child
Relationships
Traditional Versus
Egalitarian Marriages
Summary and Application
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 13. Hurting the Ones We
Love: Relational Transgressions
Hurt Feelings in Relationships
Relational Transgressions
Hurtful Messages
Types of Hurtful Messages
Responses to Hurtful
Messages
Deception
Types of Deception
Motives for Deception
Decepti…
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