Cell Phones: How they have changed society
WHERE YOU ARE SO FAR:
You started the quarter with a proposed subtopic and issue under the broad topic of Counting.
As needed and as per comments from librarians and/or me, you tweaked or changed that research issue.
Having that proposed issue and doing initial research trying to answer that basic question together was
meant to give you focus and a foundational understanding on your subtopic. This was background
research to give you working knowledge.
In Research Essay 1, you provided key definitions regarding your issue and informed your target
audience about it. Having the definitions in mind will provide you a frame of reference that will
hopefully help anchor your ideas for your next two research essays. As you continue researching, your
definitions may become reinforced or may change (adjusting your conclusions is a common result of the
researching process). That’s fine. If your definition has changed, provide that new definition in the
In Research Essay 2, you’ll continue with the same subtopic but address it from a different perspective
with emphasis on description and evaluation. So, you are not writing on the initial proposed issue for
Essay 2, but on the prompt provided in this handout. You’ll see in the example on this e-handout that
Essay 2’s discussion stems from your previous work, but you are not writing the same paper.
ENGLISH 101 RESEARCH ESSAY 2 TIPS
RESEARCH ESSAY 2. Due start of class 2/3. 4-6 pgs. APA style. Third person POV. At least 3
authoritative sources (with at least two previously unused authoritative sources) required.
That means if you used three sources in Essay 1 and opt to use all three again, you’ll still need two
new sources, resulting in a minimum total of five authoritative sources. Also, your sources must
present at least two different perspectives. Late work not accepted. Plan ahead: no excuses for not
having a printed paper at the deadline. [NOTE: APA requires a title page and an abstract; those do
not count toward the 4-6 page minimum. For my class, it’s okay to skip the title page to save paper
but do include an abstract.]
POV: Please write in third person.
Please remember that rather than simply listing information (i.e., research), you are discussing the
significance of the information. So, whenever you incorporate research into your writing, be sure to
discuss the relevance, particularly as it relates to the point you are making.
Consider whether your definition from Research Essay 1 has changed as you continued with your
research. Also consider whether you need to let your audience know the definition, especially if the
meaning differs from common usage. Avoid references like “See Essay 1.” Instead, try to
encapsulate the information and blend it into this discussion. It is fine to use snippets from Essay 1
so long as you are not taking big chunks. Write a new essay since you are rethinking the subtopic
Write in specific, concrete language to help minimize misunderstandings between writer and reader.
ESSAY PROMPT 2 (270 points). Answer the following in regard to your Counting subtopic:
Find a picture that best epitomizes your conclusion from Essay 1. Copy and paste this
picture into your paper. This picture need not capture all ideas from Essay 1, but must
reflect (in your interpretation of the picture) at least one key idea. Remember to cite the
o If you received Essay 1 feedback to narrow further, do that before selecting a
o Even if I did not specifically request that you narrow further but you have sufficient
authoritative data to have a sharper focus, you may do that.
o Your picture, in the above cases, would reflect the narrower focus, capturing at least
one key idea from your sharpened Essay 2 focus.
Use 3-4 criteria (standards of judgement) to evaluate how this picture well represents your
discussion from Essay 1. Be sure to clarify (i.e., define) your criteria as needed. Use
specific, concrete descriptions in your evaluation.
o While the evaluation of an image is an added part of your essay writing, the image
itself is meant to further understanding of your subtopic.
Consider, as an analogy, newspaper articles that include pictures. Unless the
picture itself is the news story (e.g., pictures depicting prisoner abuse at Abu
Ghraib), pictures are often used as illustrations to the written word.
So, you are evaluating the image, yes, but the image itself is not the focal
point of Essay 2. Your subtopic is still the focus. In evaluating the image, you
are essentially also evaluating your subtopic.
As you continue research and taking into consideration feedback from Essay
1, your research issue will likely sharpen further. For instance, you may
realize that one key point from Essay 1 was so important that it could be
addressed more fully in a separate essay. Thus, your issue adapts
o So, most of your essay will be discussing in greater depth your subtopic.
Your target audience is again TCC students with no specialized knowledge about your
subject. If helpful to you, you can further narrow to a smaller audience under the
umbrella of “TCC students” (e.g., TCC students who are parents); if you select a narrower
audience, please indicate it beneath your title so I know your target. If you are continuing
with TCC students more generally, there’s no need to indicate your audience.
EX: Refugees: Myths about their Poverty [Title]
Audience: TCC Students Who Are Parents [Audience]
Your thesis will likely be your overall evaluation.
EXAMPLE: Continuing in Essay 2 with my example from Essay 1 about obstacles to ratifying the ERA, let’s
say I select the picture below.
Why did I select this picture? Here’s a snippet from sample outline from the “Essay 1 Prep” e-handout:
IV. Overview of common arguments of some states’ arguments for not ratifying
a. Conservative characterization of ERA as assault on heterosexuality and “traditional” family
b. Conservative characterization of ERA as taking away women’s “privileges”
c. Unneeded since women’s rights have progressed
Though Phyllis Schlafly is not named in this outline, she would undoubtedly have been discussed in Essay 1 as
the most vocal, influential proponent of all the arguments above. During my Essay 1 research and my
continuing Essay 2 research, I may have realized that Schlafly was so instrumental in swaying public opinion
that her work in blocking the ERA becomes my revised focus.
NOTE: The picture does not capture all my ideas from Essay 1 and it need not do so, as long as it captures the
key point(s). These key points reflected in the image also is how I am planning to further narrow my
discussion. As you will see in the rough outline on the next page, there is no information about the ratification
process addressed in Essay 1. That’s because that information is now outside the scope of this refine
Since the assignment calls for 3-4 criteria to evaluate the picture and how it epitomizes my arguments from
Essay 1, I need to review what I have written and how this picture relates.
Below are three criteria I use, evidence from the picture to see how the picture measures up to the criteria, and
analogous evidence from Essay 1 to show the link between that writing and how the picture epitomizes my
definition of women’s rights as outlined in the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
Criterion 1: Attractiveness (i.e., pleasing, familiar images)
Evidence: traditional clothing, nothing provocative
Analogous evidence from Essay 1 + new research: Schlafly presents her stance as pro-tradition and
pro-women, so a supporter for this demographic, not against women’s rights but a promoter of women’s
rights and the “traditional” family. Data demonstrates her repeated portrayals of “traditional” women’s
roles as ideal
Criterion 2: Symbolism (i.e., cultural references with positive connotations)
Evidence: Schlafly cradling bread and pot, symbols of home with connotations of warmth and nurturing
Analogous evidence from Essay 1 + new research: Schlafly argues that women have important
traditional roles in the home, that women’s privileges in the home would be compromised by the ERA.
Include data referenced by Schlafly about the impacts of divorce on children and her assertions that the
ERA would lead to a spike in divorce rates.
Criterion 3: Appeal to Fear (i.e., instill concerns or worries about change)
Evidence: the “Stop ERA” sign behind Schlafly suggesting something that must be restrained; though
the picture is black and white, we can guess the sign is red since it’s in the shape of a stop sign; red is a
color of warning
Analogous evidence from Essay 1 + new research: Include Schlafly’s assertions that passage of the
ERA would mean women would be drafted into the military, a genuine fear in 1972 when the ERA was
sent to the states for ratification since the Vietnam War was still ongoing and the military draft still
existed (would not end until 1973). Include her claim that the ERA would result in same-sex marriages,
gender-neutral restrooms, and a “genderless” American society. Include information about how
conservative women under the lead of Schlafly lobbied state lawmakers to reject the ERA, effectively
getting five states to rescind their ratifications of the amendment.
Overall evaluation: this would be your weighing together how the image compares/contrasts to my standards
(criteria) of whether the picture epitomizes my definition of women’s rights as indicated in Essay 1 (or, if I’ve
changed my definition, what my Essay 2 definition is). This overall evaluation would likely be my thesis. For
Essay 2, since I am evaluating the image but also evaluating my subtopic, I need to figure out a way to weave
Sample Draft Thesis: Using the lure of stable, “traditional” home life and the repellent of social upheaval,
Phyllis Schlafly led reversal of sufficient public opinion to block passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.